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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 15 Maximizing Linear Move Field Length
I. The Procedure
•
• The following procedure for maximizing field length is from Allen, 1983, Univ.
Idaho and Allen, 1990 (Irrig. Symp. Paper), and is used in the USUPIVOT
computer program
The basic strategy is to examine different application depths and different w
values to maximize the area covered by the sprinkler system, and or to
minimize labor requirements
1. Calculate the maximum application depth per irrigation (dx ≤ MAD*Z*Wa).
Note that the maximum application depth may be less than MAD*Z*Wa
with an automatic system to maintain optimal soil water conditions and to
keep soil water content high in case of equipment failure (i.e. don’t need
to take full advantage of TAW)
f' = dx/Ud (round down to even part of day) 2. Calculate net and gross application depths:
dn = f (Ud)
d = dn/Epa 3. Calculate the (presumed) infiltrated depth per irrigation:
(Df)max = d.Re
where (Df)max is the maximum depth to be evaluated, and assuming no
runoff 4. For a series of 10 or so infiltration depths, df, beginning with df equal to
some fraction (say 1/10) of (Df)max:
df = (i/10)(Df)max where i = 1 to 10
and,
f' = df DEpa/(100 Ud)
f = f'  days off (days off may be zero because the system is automatic),
where f' = irrigation frequency for depth df. DEpa is used here (in percent)
because Ud is net, not gross Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 179 Merkley & Allen 5. Determine the maximum ARx for a particular df value using the following
two equations (assuming an elliptical pattern): AR x = 1
n
n⎞
⎛ ( SF ) ( AR x ) ⎞ ⎛ n+1
⎜k
(n + 1)n+1 (D − SS − c )n+1 ⎟
⎜1−
⎟
k
⎜
⎟
⎝
⎠⎝
⎠
2 ⎞
⎛π⎞ ⎛ D
1.05 − 1.6 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ − 0.5 ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ df
⎠ 2 (301) where,
−0.5
⎛⎛
⎞
2
2
2
⎛
⎞⎞
⎞⎞ ⎟
⎜⎜
⎛π⎞ ⎛ D
⎛π⎞ ⎛ D
2
2
⎟
⎜ −1.6 AR2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ − 0.5 ⎟ ⎟ ⎟
x
⎜ ⎜ 1.05 AR x − 1.6 AR x ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ d − 0.5 ⎟ ⎟
⎜
⎝ ⎠⎝f
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ df
⎠⎠
⎠⎟ ⎟
⎝
⎠
⎜⎝
D=⎜
⎟
−1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞
⎛ ( SF ) ( AR x ) ⎞ ⎛
⎜
⎟
df n ⎜ 1 −
⎟ ⎜ ( n + 1) n+1 ⎟ ⎜ k n+1 ⎟
⎜
⎟
⎜
⎟⎜
k
⎟
⎝
⎠⎝
⎠⎝
⎜
⎟
⎠
⎝
⎠
+SS + c −n−1 (302)
and ARx is the peak application per pass (mm/min); D is the applied depth
at time t = ∫ (AR) dt (mm); SS is the allowable surface storage (after
ponding) before runoff occurs (usually less than about 5 mm); c is the
instantaneous soil infiltration depth, from SCS soil intake families (mm); k
is the coefficient in the KostiakovLewis equation; and df is the total depth
of water applied to the ground surface (mm)
•
•
•
•
• The parameter “n” is defined as: n = a 1, where “a” is the Kostiakov
exponent (see NRCS soil curves at www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/nrcssirrig)
Note that SS is a function of the field topography and microtopography,
and is affected by foliar interception of applied water
These last two equations have π in them because there is an inherent
assumption of an elliptical water application profile from the sprinklers or
sprayers
Recall that ARav = (π/4)ARx for an elliptical pattern
SF is a relative sealing factor (in terms of soil water infiltration), and may
have values in the range of 0 to about 0.36 Merkley & Allen Page 180 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures •
•
• 6. The higher values of SF tend to be for freshly tilled soils, which are
generally most susceptible to surface sealing from the impact of water
drops
Lower values of SF are for untilled soils and vegetative cover, such as
alfalfa or straw, which tend to reduce the impact of water drops on the soil
and help prevent runoff too
If the linear move irrigates in both directions (no deadheading), then df is
onehalf the value from these two equations
Compute the total wetting time, ti, in minutes: ti = 7. df π
( AR x )
4 (303) Compute the speed of the system for the required ti:
S = w/ti (m/min) (w is for a specific nozzle type)
If S ≥ Smax (this may occur for a high intake soil or for a very light
application with surface storage) then reduce the application rate and
increase time as follows: ti = w AR x =
Thus, 8. (304) Smax
4 df
π ti (305) S = Smax (306) Calculate maximum field length, X:
8(a). For irrigation in one direction, only (dry return, or deadheading): X= 60 f T − 2 treset ⎛1
⎞
1
t
+
+ hose ⎟
⎜
⎜ S wet Sdry 100 ⎟
⎝
⎠ (307) where,
Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 181 Merkley & Allen X = maximum length of field (m);
f = system operating time per irrigation (days);
T = hours per day system is operated (2123);
treset = time to reset lateral at each end of the field (min);
those = time to change the hose (min/100 m);
Swet = maximum speed during irrigation (m/min); and
Sdry = maximum dry (return) speed (m/min) labor = ( 2 treset + 0.01X those + 2 t super ) 60 f (308) where labor is in hrs/day; and tsuper is minutes of supervisory time per 100
m of movement
8(b). For irrigation in both directions (no deadheading): X= 60 f T − 2 treset
⎛1
⎞
t
2⎜
+ hose ⎟
⎝ S wet 100 ⎠ (309) and labor is calculated as above in 8(a)
9. Calculate the irrigated area: Areamax = XL
10, 000 (310) where Areamax is in ha; and L is the total lateral length (m)
10. Labor per hectare per irrigation, Lha: Lha = labor
Areamax (311) 11. Repeat steps 510 for a different value of df
12. Repeat steps 411 for a new w (different application device or different
operating pressure)
13. Select the nozzle device and application depth which maximizes the field
length (or fits available field length) and which minimizes labor
requirements per ha
Merkley & Allen Page 182 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures 14. System capacity: Qs = π AR x w L
4k 3 Re (312) where k3 = 96.3 for L and w in ft, Qs in gpm, and ARx in in/hr; and k3 = 60
for L and w in m, Qs in lps, and ARx in mm/min
The system capacity can also be computed as: Qs = df w L
ti k 3 R e (313) II. Assumptions & Limitations of the Above Procedure
• • In the above procedure (and in the USUPIVOT computer program), when
designing for a system which irrigates in both directions, the second pass is
assumed to occur immediately after the first pass, so that the infiltration
curve is decreased due to the first pass before the ARx of the second pass is
computed
This will occur near the ends of the field, where the design is most critical.
The proposed procedure assumes that:
•
•
• There is no “surge” effect of soil surface sealing due to a brief time period
between irrigation passes (when irrigating in both directions)
The infiltration curve used represents soil moisture conditions
immediately before the initiation of the first pass
The infiltration curve used holds for all frequencies (f) or depths (df)
evaluated, while in fact, as f↑, θ↓, so that the Kostiakov coefficients will
change. Therefore, the procedure (and field ring infiltration tests) should
be repeated using coefficients which represent the Kostiakov equation for
the soil moisture condition which is found to be most optimal in order to
obtain the most representative results. Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 183 Merkley & Allen Linear Move Design Example
I. Given Parameters
•
•
• Hosefed linear move, irrigating in only one direction in a 64ha field (400 m
wide and 1,600 m long)
The pressure is 140 kPa (20 psi) for spray booms with a preliminary w if 10
m (33 ft)
The soil infiltration characteristics are defined for the KostiakovLewis
equation as: Z = 5.43τ0.49 (314) with Z in mm of cumulative infiltrated depth; and τ is intake opportunity time
in minutes. Other design parameters:
Ud = 7.7 mm/day
MAD = 50%
Z = 0.9 m
Wa = 125 mm/m
Oe = 1.00
Re = 0.94
Epa = 85%
•
•
•
•
• Maximum dry (returning) speed = 3.5 m/min
Maximum wet (irrigating) speed = 3.0 m/min
Reset time = 0.5 hours per end of field
Hose Reset time = 10 min/100 m of travel distance
Supervisory time = 5 min/100 m of travel distance II. One Possible Design Solution
•
• This design will consider only spray booms with w = 10 m
Note that the full procedure would normally be performed with a computer
program or spreadsheet, not by hand calculations
1. Calculate the maximum application depth per irrigation [dx = MAD(z)(Wa),
or less] dx = (0.5)(0.9)(125) = 56 mm f' = Merkley & Allen dx
56
=
= 7.3 ⇒ f ' = 7 days
Ud 7.7
Page 184 (315) (316) Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures 2. Net and gross application depths: dn = f Ud = (7)(7.7) = 54 mm d= (317) dn
54
=
= 64 mm
Epa 0.85 (318) 3. Infiltrated depth at each irrigation: D f = d R e = (64)(0.94) = 60 mm (319) 4. For a series of 10 infiltration values, calculate df, beginning with df = Df
/10: ⎛i⎞
df = D f ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 10 ⎠ (320) where i = 1 to 10. For this example, let i = 4 and, df = (0.4)(60 mm) = 24
mm. Then, f' = df DEpa
Ud = (24)(0.85 / 0.94)
= 2.8 days
7.7 (321) Assume no days off (no down time during the peak use period) f = f '− days off = 2.8 − 0 = 2.8 days (322) 5. Determine the maximum ARx for the particular df depth:
From Eq. 282:
ARx = 0.97 mm/min
ARx reaching the soil surface = 0.97 (Re) = 0.91 mm/min
6. Compute the total wetting time, ti, in minutes: ti = 4 df
4 (24)
=
= 34 min
π AR x π (0.91) (323) 7. Compute the speed of the system for the required ti:
Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 185 Merkley & Allen S= w 10
=
= 0.3 m / min
ti 34 (324) Thus, S < Smax (3.0 m/min), so this is OK.
8. Calculate maximum field length, X:
For irrigation in one direction, only (deadhead back): X= 60 f T − 2 treset =
⎛1
⎞
1
t
+
+ hose ⎟
⎜
⎜ S wet Sdry 100 ⎟
⎝
⎠
60 (2.8)(22) − 2 (30)
=
= 970 m
1
10 ⎞
⎛1
+
+
⎜
⎟
⎝ 0.3 3.5 100 ⎠ (325) and, the labor requirements are: ( ) 2 treset + 0.01 those + 2 t sup er X
60 f
= = 2(30) + 0.01[10 + 2 (5)] [970]
60 (2.8) (326) = 1.5 hrs / day where treset is the reset time at the end of the field (min); those is the hose
reconnection time (min/100 m); and tsuper is the “supervisory” time
(min/100 m)
9. Maximum irrigated area:
Areamax = XL/10000 = 970(400)/10000 = 38.8 ha
which is only about half of the actual field area!
10. Labor per ha per irrigation, L/ha:
L/ha = (labor/area)max = 1.5/38.8 = 0.039 hr/ha/day
11. Repeat steps 5  10 for a new df (not done in this example)
Merkley & Allen Page 186 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures 12. Repeat steps 411 for a new w (different application device or operating
pressure). (not done in this example).
13. Select the nozzle, device and application depth that maximizes the field
length (or fits the available field length), and which minimizes labor
requirements per ha.
Note: 38.8 ha << 64 ha, which is the size of the field, (970 m << 1600 m
which is the length of the field). Therefore, it is important to continue
iterations (steps 11 and 12) to find an application depth and or new w
(different sprinkler or spray device) to reach 1600 m and 64 ha, if
possible.
Additional Observations:
• •
• • • •
• For a 6m spray boom, applying a 12mm depth per each 1.4 days
would almost irrigate the 64 ha. However, the labor requirement is
doubled, as the machine must be moved twice as often. This
additional cost must be considered and weighed against the larger
area irrigated with one linear move machine.
If larger spray booms were used (w = 16 m rather than 10 m) (these
would be more expensive) then 18 mm could be applied each 2.1
days, and all 64 ha could be irrigated with one machine.
If low pressure impact sprinklers were used (these would be less
expensive than spray booms, but energy costs would be higher), then
w = 22 m, and 30 mm could be applied each 3.5 days (more water
can be applied since the application rate is spread over a wider area
from the lateral), and all 64 ha could be irrigated. In addition, ETc
would be less since the soil would be wetted less often. Also, the soil
intake rate would be higher each irrigation because of a drier
antecedent moisture at the time of irrigation.
Notice that required wetting time for rotation times (f) greater than 2
days are identical between all types of spray devices. This is
because, for the large depths applied, a minimum wetting time is
required. The system speed is adjusted to fit the w value of the water
application device.
If no acceptable solution for this problem were found, then
alternatives to be evaluated would be to irrigate in both directions, or
to consider a ditchfed linear move (this requires a leveled ditch, but
does not required time for moving hoses and hose friction losses).
You could also consider a “robot” controlled machine that
automatically connects alternating arms to hydrants on a buried
mainline (but this is a very expensive alternative)
You might begin to wonder whether an investment in a linear move
machine is justifiable when there is a significant labor requirement for
reconnecting the supply hose, resetting at the end of the field, and Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 187 Merkley & Allen supervising operation. That is, why not put in a center pivot or a side
roll system instead?
If one linear move cannot cover the entire field length in the available
period, “f” (days), you could consider two linear move machines for
the same field • 14. System Capacity: Qs = π AR x w L π (0.91)(10)( 400)
=
= 51 lps (809 gpm)
4 k 3Re
4 (60)(0.94) (327) alternatively, Qs = df w L
(24)(10)( 400)
=
= 51 lps (809 gpm)
ti k 3R e (33.6)(60)(0.94) (328) Note that the computed Qs is larger than one based strictly on Ud and T,
because the machine is shut off during reset and hose moving
For Qs based only on f, A, d and T, with no consideration for those, Qs = 2.78 Ad
(38.3)(24)
= 2.78
= 44 lps (700 gpm)
fT
(2.8)(22)(0.94) (16) But this flow rate is too low – it does not consider hose moving and
reset time. So, the 51 lps system capacity should be used for design Merkley & Allen Page 188 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2012 for the course BIE 6110 taught by Professor Sprinkle during the Fall '03 term at Utah State University.
 Fall '03
 Sprinkle

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