1-18 - Lecture 19 Water Requirements in Trickle Irrigation...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 19 Water Requirements in Trickle Irrigation I. Trickle Irrigation Requirements 1. Daily Use Rate • The daily transpiration rate under a trickle system is based on Ud and the percent area shaded (covered) by the plant leaves. Eq. 19.9: Td = 0.1 Ud Pd (349) where Ud is as previously defined and Pd is the percent (0 to 100) shaded area when the sun is overhead (or most nearly overhead, in temperate zones) • • • Note that when Pd = 0, Td = 0 Note that when Pd = 100%, Td = Ud Note that Td is called “transpiration,” but it really includes evaporation too 1.0 0.9 0.8 Closely-spaced crops 0.6 0.5 pi/4 = 0.785 0.1*sqrt(Pd) 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Pd Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 215 Merkley & Allen • • • The reduction from Ud is justified by considering the typical reduction in wet soil evaporation with trickle irrigation The maximum Pd for a mature orchard is usually about π/4 (0.785), which is the ratio of the area of a square and the circle it encloses: Tree spacing is generally such that the trees do not compete for sunlight, and the area of each tree is equal to the square of the spacing between them (for a square spacing) 2. Seasonal Water Use • This is calculated as for the peak daily use in Eq. 19.9: Ts = 0.1 U Pd (350) 3. Seasonal Water Deficit • To determine the seasonal water deficit, to be supplied from the irrigation system, consider effective rainfall and initial soil moisture, in addition to percent shaded area: ( Dn = (U − Pe − Ms ) 0.1 Pd ) (351) where U is used instead of Ts because Pe (effective precipitation) and Ms (initial soil water content) are over the entire surface area 4. Net Depth per Irrigation • This is the same as for sprinkle irrigation (or surface irrigation), but with an adjustment for percent wetted area. Eq. 19.12 is: Merkley & Allen Page 216 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures dx = • • MAD Pw Wa Z 100 100 (352) Essentially, the same net volume of water is applied as with other irrigation methods, but on a smaller area of the surface (and subsurface) Then, the maximum irrigation interval is: fx = dx Td (353) and f’ (round down from fx to get whole number of days) is less than or equal to fx, but often assumed to be 1 day for trickle system design purposes. Then, dn = Tdf ' (354) II. Gross Irrigation Requirements • • • • • • • The transmission ratio (peak use period) takes into account the twodimensional infiltration pattern, or bulb shape, under trickle irrigation Even if the net depth is exactly right, there will almost always be some deep percolation (more than that which may be required for leaching purposes) The transmission ratio, Tr, is used as a factor to increase required gross application depth from dn The transmission ratio is equivalent to the inverse of the distribution efficiency, DEpa, as given in Chapter 6 of the textbook The transmission ratio is lower for heavy-textured (“fine”) soils because there is more lateral water movement in the soil, and the bulb shape is flatter; thus, potentially less deep percolation losses Table 19.3 gives approximate values of Tr for different soil textures and root depths (1.0 < Tr < 1.1) – obtain more representative values from the field, if possible Then, for LRt < 0.1, or Tr > 1/(1-LRt), Eq. 19.15a: ⎛d T ⎞ d = 100 ⎜ n r ⎟ ⎝ EU ⎠ (355) where EU is the emission uniformity (%), which can be taken as a fieldmeasured value for existing trickle systems, or as an assumed design value • • EU takes into account pressure variations due to friction loss and elevation change, and the manufacturer’s variability in emitter production If f’ = 1 day, then dn can be replaced by Td in Eq. 19.15a Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 217 Merkley & Allen • For LRt > 0.1, or Tr < 1/(1-LRt), Eq. 19.15c: d= • • 100 dn EU (1.0 − LR t ) (356) The difference in the above two equations is in whether LRt or Tr dominates If one dominates, it is assumed that the other is “taken care of” automatically Gross Volume of Water per Plant per Day • Equation 19.16: G= d SpSr f' (357) with d in mm; Sp and Sr in m; and G in liters/day • • • Note that millimeters multiplied by square meters equals liters This equation does not use Pw because d is calculated for the entire surface area, and each plant occupies an SpSr area Other versions of this equation are given in the textbook for gross seasonal volume of water to apply Required Application Time During Peak-Use Period • Equation 20.11: Ta = G Npqa (358) where Ta is the required application (irrigation) time during the peak-use period (hr/day), with G in litres/day, and qa in litres/hr III. Coefficient of Variation • • • This is a statistical index to quantify discharge variations in emitters, at the same operating pressure, due to differences in the emitter construction The coefficient of variation is important in trickle system design and evaluation because it can significantly affect the adequacy of the system to irrigate the least watered areas of a field For statistical significance, there should be at least 50 measurements of discharge from 50 individual emitters of the same design and manufacture Merkley & Allen Page 218 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures ∑ (qi2 ) n i=1 ν= 1⎛ n ⎞ − ⎜ ∑ qi ⎟ n ⎜ i=1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎛1 n ⎞ n − 1 ⎜ ∑ qi ⎟ ⎜n ⎟ ⎝ i=1 ⎠ σ = (359) qavg or, n ν= 1 qavg ∑ ( qi − qavg ) i=1 2 (360) n −1 where n is the number of samples; σ is the standard deviation; qi are the individual discharge values; and qavg is the mean discharge value of all samples • Standard classifications as to the interpretation of ν have been developed (Soloman 1979): Classification Excellent Average Marginal Poor Unacceptable • Drip & Spray Emitters ν < 0.05 0.05 < ν < 0.07 0.07 < ν < 0.11 0.11 < ν < 0.15 0.15 < ν Line-Source Tubing ν < 0.1 0.1 < ν < 0.2 --0.2 < ν < 0.3 0.3 < ν For a large sample (n > 50) the data will usually be normally distributed (symmetrical “bell-shaped” curve) and, 68% of the discharge values are within ............... (1±ν)qavg 95% of the discharge values are within ............. (1±2ν)qavg 99.75% of the discharge values are within ........ (1±3ν)qavg IV. System Coefficient of Variation • • The system coefficient of variation takes into account the probability that the use of more than one emitter per plant will cause an effective decrease in the combined discharge variability per plant due to differences in the emitters (not due to pressure variability due to pipe friction losses and elevation changes) On the average, discharge variability due to manufacturer tolerances will tend to balance out with more emitters per plant Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 219 Merkley & Allen νs = ν (361) N'p where Np’ is the minimum number of emitters from which each plant receives water (see page 493 of the textbook) • For a single line of laterals per row of plants, L w = w + (N − 1) Se (362) where Lw is the length of the wetted strip; and N is the number of emitters (assumed to be evenly spaced). Then, ⎛L − w⎞ N = 1+ ⎜ w ⎟ ⎝ Se ⎠ (363) ⎛ Sp − w ⎞ Np ' ≈ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ Se ⎠ (364) or, V. Design Emission Uniformity • • In new system designs it is not possible to go out to the field to measure the EU’ (Eq. 17.2) – a different approach is required to estimate EU The design EU is defined as (Eq. 20.13): EU = 100 (1 − 1.27 νs ) qn qa (365) where qn is the minimum emitter discharge rate in the system, corresponding to the emitter with the lowest pressure; and qa is the average emitter discharge rate in the system, corresponding to the location of average pressure in the system • • qn and qa are calculated (not measured) in new system designs by knowing the topography, system layout, pipe sizes, and Qs Note that the value in parenthesis in Eq. 20.13 corresponds to the low onequarter emitter discharge Merkley & Allen Page 220 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures • • EU gives a lower (more conservative) value than EU’, and the equation is biased toward lower discharges to help ensure that the least watered areas will receive an adequate application Graphical interpretations of these relationships are given in Figs. 20.9 and 20.10 VI. Average of the low ¼ • • • • • Note that the inclusion percentages for 1, 2 and 3 standard deviations correspond to any normally distributed data Note also that ν qavg = σ The textbook says that for a normal distribution, the average flow rate of the low one-quarter of measured q samples is approximately (1 - 1.27 ν)qavg The 1.27 coefficient can be determined from the equation for the normal distribution and tabular values of the area under the curve The equation is: occurrences = • • • • • • • e 1 ⎛ q−qavg ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ 2⎝ σ ⎠ σ 2π 2 (366) To use the tabular values of area under the curve (e.g. from a statistics book), it is necessary to use qavg = 0 and σ = 1 (the alternative is to integrate the above equation yourself, which can also be done) Actually, qavg never equals zero, but for the determination of the 1.27 coefficient it will not matter In the tables, for area = 75%, the abscissa value (q, in our case) is about 0.675 The same tables usually go up to a maximum abscissa of 3.49 (recall that 99.75% of the values are within ±3σ, so 3.49 is usually far enough) Anyway, for 3.49, the area is about 99.98%, and that is from -∞ to +3.49 (for qavg = 0 and σ = 1), for the high ¼ For the low ¼, take the opposite, changing to q = -0.675 and q = -3.49 In this case (qavg = 0 and σ = 1), the equation reduces to: 2 occurrences = Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures e −0.5q 2π Page 221 (367) Merkley & Allen • • • For q = 0.675, occurrences = 0.31766718 For q = 3.49, occurrences = 0.0.00090372 Finally, 0.31766718 − 0.00090372 = 1.268 0.9998 − 0.7500 • (368) Therefore, (1 - 1.268 ν)qavg is the average of the lowest 25% of measured discharge values, for any given values of ν & qavg, and given normallydistributed data V. System Capacity • The system capacity of a trickle system can be calculated by Eq. 20.15: Qs = 2.78 A N pq a N s S pS r (369) where Ns is the number of stations (sets); and A is the total net irrigated area. Or, Qs = 2.78 Merkley & Allen Page 222 A qa N s S eS l (370) Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures where the coefficient “2.78” is for Qs in lps; A in ha; qa in lph; and Sp, Sr, Se, and Sl in m (10,000 m2/ha divided by 3,600 s/hr = 2.78) VI. Operating Hours per Season • The approximate number of hours the system must operate per irrigation season (or per year, in many cases) is equal to the required gross seasonal application volume, divided by the system flow rate: Ot = K Vs Qs (371) where K = 2,778 for Vs in ha-m; and Qs in lps; and Vs is gross seasonal volume of irrigation water Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 223 Merkley & Allen Merkley & Allen Page 224 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures ...
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