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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 20 Emitter Selection & Design
I. Introduction
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• There are hundreds of models, sizes and types of emitters, sprayers,
bubblers, and others, available from dozens of manufacturers
Prices of emitters can change frequently
Some emitters have longer life than others, but cost more
Some emitters have better pressure compensating features, but cost more
Some emitters have better flushing capabilities, but cost more
It is very difficult to know which is the “correct” emitter for a particular design,
and usually there are a number of emitters that could work and would be
acceptable for a given system
Thus, the selection of an emitter involves knowledge of the different types,
their prices, their availability, and their performance
Experience on the designer’s part is valuable, and emitter selection will often
involve a process of elimination II. LongPath Emitters
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• Socalled “spaghetti” tubing is a typical example of a longpath emitter
Longpath emitters also come in spiral configurations (Fig. 20.1 of the
textbook)
These can be represented by an equation used for capillary flow under
laminar conditions: c g π D4 H
=
ν qK (372) where lc is the length of the flow path; D is the inside diameter; H is the
pressure head; ν is the kinematic viscosity (a function of water temperature);
q is the flow rate; K is for units conversion; and g is the ratio of force to mass
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• The above equation is only approximately correct for longpath emitters
The above equation is based on circular crosssections, which is typical
The above equation assumes laminar flow, which may not be the case
Note that the flow rate is proportional to the fourth power of the diameter, so
the diameter is a very important dimension
Note also that the flow rate is inversely proportional to the length (double the
length and get half the flow rate) Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 225 Merkley & Allen • When is it valid to assume laminar flow? Consider that a Reynolds number
of 4,000 is probably as high as you can go without transitioning from laminar
to turbulent flow: VD
4Q
=
< 4,000
ν
π νD (373) or, Q < 15D @ 10°C, with Q in lph and D in mm cool
short warm hot long
longest •
• In black PE lateral hose, sunlight warms the water significantly as the velocity
slows down, and water viscosity decreases
Longpath emitters would ideally be progressively longer along the lateral to
compensate and provide a more uniform discharge along the lateral III. Tortuous and ShortPath Emitters
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• Tortuouspath emitters also have long paths, but not laminar flow. This is
because the path has many sharp bends, and is in the form of a maze
Tortuouspath emitters tend to behave hydraulically like orifices, and so do
many shortpath emitters
Flow rate is nearly independent of the viscosity, at least over typical ranges
in viscosity
Many shortpath emitters have pressure compensating features Merkley & Allen Page 226 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures IV. Orifice Emitters
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• Many drip emitters and sprayers behave as orifices
The orifice(s) are designed to dissipate energy and reduce the flow rate to an
acceptable value
Flow rate is approximately proportional to the square root of the pressure V. Line Source Tubing
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• Singlechamber tubing provides less uniformity than dualchamber tubing
In dualchamber tubing, much of the head loss occurs through the orifices
between the two chambers. The outer chamber is somewhat analogous to a
manifold or header.
The flow rate equation for dualchamber tubing can be expressed as: q = a 'K 2
2g Hno ( 2
1 + no ) (374) where a’ is the area of the outer orifice; K is an empirical coefficient; H is the
pressure head; and no is the number of outer orifices per inner orifice (no >
1.0)
• See Fig. 20.2 in the textbook VI. Vortex and Sprayer Emitters
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• Vortex emitters have a whirlpool effect in which the water must exit through
the center of the whirlpool
Energy is dissipated by the friction from spinning in a chamber, and from
exiting through an orifice in the center
As mentioned in a previous lecture, the exponent on the pressure head is
approximately equal to 0.4 (in the discharge equation). Thus, these can
usually be considered to be (partially) pressure compensating VII.Pressure Compensating Emitters
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• Pressure compensating emitters usually have some flexible or moving parts
These types of emitters tend to need replacement or repair more often than
most of the simpler emitter designs, therefore incurring higher maintenance
cost
Figure 20.3 of the textbook shows one design approach for a pressure
compensating emitter Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 227 Merkley & Allen • As defined previously, pressure compensating emitters always have a
pressure head exponent of less than 0.5 (otherwise they aren’t considered to
be pressure compensating) VIII.SelfFlushing Emitters
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• In this category there are continuous and periodic flushing emitters
Periodic flushing emitters perform their self cleaning when the lateral is filled
(before it reaches full operating pressure), and when the lateral is emptied.
In other words, they typically flush once per day.
Continuousflushing emitters have flexible parts that can stretch to allow solid
particles to pass through
Fig. 20.4 in the textbook shows an example of one such design
These can be sensitive to temperature changes and are not normally
pressure compensating IX. Calculating the Discharge Exponent
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• You can calculate the exponent, x, based on a pair of measured flow rates
and pressure heads
Recall a rule of logarithms: log (ax) = x (log a)
The solution can be obtained graphically, but is more quickly accomplished
with calculators and electronic spreadsheets
If you have more than two pairs of q and H, then you can take the logarithmic
transformation of the equation and perform linear regression; however, the
regression will be mathematically biased toward the smaller values Design Approach & Example
I. Review of Example Designs
• We will review example designs in Chapter 21 of the textbook, and discuss
design alternatives and parameters affecting efficiency, etc II. Summarized Trickle Irrigation Design Process
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• These are 15 basic steps, following the material presented in Chapters 1724
of the textbook, that can be followed for the design of many trickle systems
These are basic steps and represent a summary of the generalized design
process, but remember that each design situation will have some unique
features
1. Collect data on the crop, climate, soil, topography, and irrigation water
quality, field shape & size, water availability. Merkley & Allen Page 228 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures 2. Select an emitter and determine an emission point layout such that 33% <
Pw < 67%. This will determine the number of emitters per plant, Np.
Emitter selection may involve field testing to determine the wetted width
(or diameter), w.
3. Calculate dx, fx, and Td. Note that fx will almost always be greater than
1.0.
4. Select a target value for EU (usually 7095%; see Table 20.3) and
estimate the peakuse transmission ratio, Tr (usually 1.001.10; see Table
19.3).
5. Calculate the leaching requirement, LRt, based on crop type and irrigation
water quality.
6. Let f = 1 day (usually), then dn = Td. Calculate the gross application
depth, d.
7. Calculate the gross volume of water required per plant per day, G. ⎛ dS pS r ⎞
G = K⎜
⎟
f
⎝
⎠ (375) 8. Calculate the daily hours of operation, Ta, (per station, or subunit) during
the peakuse period. Ta = G
N pq a (376) 9. Determine the number of operation stations based on Ta (with more
stations, the system capacity is lower).
If Ta = 24 hrs, then Ns = 1
If Ta = 12 hrs, then Ns = 1 or 2
If Ta = 8 hrs, then Ns = 2 or 3, and so on
10. Adjust Np and qa so that TaNs is equal to, or slightly less than, 90%(24
hrs/day) = 21.6 hrs/day. First, try adjusting qa because this is usually less
expensive than increasing Np. If the emitter is pressure compensating, or
if qa must be greatly altered, you may need to change Np (or you may
need to select a different emitter).
11. Having determined the value of qa, calculate the minimum allowable
emitter discharge, qn
Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 229 Merkley & Allen qn = q a EU 100 (1.0 − 1.27 νs ) (377) Note that if EU is high and νs is high, it could be that qn > qa (but this
would not be a reasonable calculation result!)
12. Calculate the average (nominal) and minimum lateral pressure heads
1/ x ⎛q⎞
h=⎜
⎟
⎝ Kd ⎠ (378)
1/ x ⎛q ⎞
hn = ha ⎜ n ⎟
⎝ qa ⎠ (379) 13. Calculate the allowable change in pressure head in an operating station ∆Hs = 2.5 (ha − hn ) (380) 14. Calculate Qs, Vs, and Ot.
15. Finally, size the laterals, headers, manifolds and mainline(s) according to
hydraulic design criteria. Merkley & Allen Page 230 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2012 for the course BIE 6110 taught by Professor Sprinkle during the Fall '03 term at Utah State University.
 Fall '03
 Sprinkle

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