chapter1-introduction02

chapter1-introduction02 - 1.Introduction If the automobile...

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Digital IC Introduction 1.Introduction If the automobile had followed the same development cycle as the computer, a Rolls- Royce would today cost $100, get one million miles to the gallon and explode once a year
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outline Course Introduction a brief history Design Metrics Fundamental background MOS transistor CMOS logic Semiconductor processing DIC characteristics Design partitioning Example: a simple MIPS microprocessor Slide 2
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Silicon Lattice Transistors are built on a silicon substrate Silicon is a Group IV material Forms crystal lattice with bonds to four neighbors Slide 3 Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si
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Dopants Silicon is a semiconductor Pure silicon has no free carriers and conducts poorly Adding dopants increases the conductivity Group V: extra electron (n-type) Group III: missing electron, called hole (p-type) Slide 4 As Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si B Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si - + + -
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Group IVA Elemental Semiconductors 2011/2/24 5 Semiconductors Group IVA C, Carbon 6 Si, Silicon 14 Ge, Germanium 32 Sn, Tin 50 Pb, Lead 82
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Covalent Bonding of Pure Silicon 2011/2/24 6 Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Silicon atoms share valence electrons to form insulator-like bonds.
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Why Silicon? Abundance of silicon Higher melting temperature for wider processing range Wider temperature range of operation Natural growth of silicon dioxide 2011/2/24 7
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SiO2 on Silicon Wafer 2011/2/24 8
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The 10 Most Abundant Element in the Earth’s Crust 2011/2/24 9
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Silicon Dopants 2011/2/24 10 Group III (p-type) Boron 5 Aluminum 13 Gallium 31 Indium 49 Group IV Carbon 6 Silicon 14 Germanium 32 Tin 50 Group V (n-type) Nitrogen 7 Phosphorus 15 Arsenic 33 Antimony 51 Acceptor Impurities Donor Impurities Semiconductor * Items underlined are the most commonly used in silicon-based IC manufacturing.
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Electrons in N-Type Silicon with Phosphorus Dopant 2011/2/24 11
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Conduction in n-Type Silicon 12 Free electrons flow toward positive terminal. Positive terminal from power supply Negative terminal from power supply
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Holes in p-Type Silicon with Boron Dopant 13
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Conduction in p-Type Silicon 14 Positive terminal from voltage supply Negative terminal from voltage supply +Holes flow toward negative terminal -Electrons flow toward positive terminal
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p-n Junctions A junction between p-type and n-type semiconductor forms a diode. Current flows only in one direction Slide 15 p-type n-type anode cathode
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nMOS Transistor Four terminals: gate, source, drain, body Gate – oxide – body stack looks like a capacitor Gate and body are conductors SiO2 (oxide) is a very good insulator Called metal – oxide – semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET-FET) Even though gate is no longer made of metal Slide 16 n+ p Gate Source bulk Si SiO 2 Polysilicon n+
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nMOS Operation Body is commonly tied to ground (0 V) When the gate is at a low voltage: P-type body is at low voltage Source-body and drain-body diodes are OFF Slide 17 n+ p Gate Source bulk Si SiO 2 Polysilicon n+ D 0 S
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nMOS Operation Cont.
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2012 for the course MR 310 taught by Professor Fuyuzhuo during the Spring '10 term at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

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chapter1-introduction02 - 1.Introduction If the automobile...

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