3/1/12 www2.fiu.edu/agirArdc/4700IND.11.htm 1/1 www2.fiu.edu/agirArdc/4700IND.11.htm American Indians in Phase I Colonial E[pansion Leads to Broken Treaties and Forcible RemoYal I.English colonial polic\ leads to partial decimation A.Demographic hemorrhage: decline from at least 2 million to 250,000 by mid-1800s 1. Killed by white¶s bullets, encroachments, disease B. Can¶t lump into one ethnic group: 300 tribes, 150 languages II.The Legac\ of Colonial PoZer: Forcible RemoYal onto ReserYations A.Proclamation of 1763: all land west of the Appalachians declared Indian Territory 1.Anticipating the future: English government can¶t stop settler encroachments B. The “Trail of Tears:” fate 60,000 members of5 “civilizes tribes” in southeast U.S. 1. Cherokee,Choctaw,Chickasaw,Seminole, Creek:settled agriculture,cabin houses 2.Cherokee:written language,bicameral legislature,appelate judiciary,own slaves 3.gold discovered on reservation:Georgia nullifies Cherokee council, raffles land 4.Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831); Worcester v. Gorgia (1832):
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