Advances in Construction Materials 2007.pdf - Christian U Grosse(Ed Advances in Construction Materials 2007 Christian U Grosse Advances in Construction

Advances in Construction Materials 2007.pdf - Christian U...

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Unformatted text preview: Christian U. Grosse (Ed.) Advances in Construction Materials 2007 Christian U. Grosse Advances in Construction Materials 2007 With 578 Figures and 80 Tables 123 PD Dr.-Ing. Christian U. Grosse Materialprüfungsanstalt Universität Stuttgart Pfaffenwaldring 4 70569 Stuttgart, Germany [email protected] ISBN-13 978-3-540-72447-6 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable for prosecution under the German Copyright Law. Springer is a part of Springer Science+Business Media springer.com © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007 The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Typesetting and Production: LE-TEX Jelonek, Schmidt & Vöckler GbR, Leipzig Cover: WMXDesign, Heidelberg Printed on acid-free paper 68/3180 YL – 5 4 3 2 1 0 Preface This book addresses one of the most important material categories: Materials used for constructions. A large percentage of the gross national product of most countries goes into infrastructure and buildings. This statement is true not only for the present but for most other periods in history, and for most cultures. This explains why understanding the behavior of construction materials has always been the object of intense investigations. The construction industry consumes extreme volumes of material, and the growing demand for quality and safety require continuous improvement of materials and material compositions. A deep understanding of material behavior is essential to enable efficient construction: light-weight or heavily burdened structures ask for the development of innovative composites or new material compositions. Rapid economic growth and a dense and growing population require sensitive and sustainable use of resources. Finally efficient use of resources means extending the usage of existing structures, so non-destructive testing methods are needed to assess the safety and utility of these structures. Civil Engineers and Material Scientists from all over the world are openly discussing ideas for new materials, and for structural health monitoring. Over the last decade many innovations have come to fruition, primarily in the field of composites but also for improving the design of existing material. This is especially true for concrete, perhaps the most used material in the world – broadening its range of applications and improving performance. Some of these developments include high-strength and high-performance concrete (HPC), self-compacting concrete (SCC), shotcrete, textile or fiber reinforced concrete (FRC), and chemical and mechanical additives. Performance can be further optimized by combining these improvements. Enhancement of material behavior and physical properties were also made for most other construction materials (e.g. wood, masonry, steel, polymers) as well. This book contains descriptions of some of these developments giving a thorough overview about the state-of-the-art in construction material science. The book is subdivided in nine chapters addressing most of these aspects. Some of the leading experts in their particular research fields present their results – experts that are all more or less closely related to one impressive person: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans W. Reinhardt. The research in the field of construction materials was (and is) always influenced by dominant researchers, so many contributions in this book are dedicated to Reinhardt. Therefore, it is just consequent to start the book with a review about his scientific achievements up to his recent retirement. The papers here presented were originally submitted to the conference on Advances in Construction Materials (ACM2007) which is held in July 2007 in Stuttgart which is also dedicated to Reinhardt’s work. This book addresses perhaps the VI Preface key element of Reinhardt’s contributions: Materials used for constructions as well as improvement and testing of structures. The editor is grateful for the help of two hard workers who made this compilation, possible. Mrs. Simone Stumpp has to be thanked first. She is always friendly, solid and maintained a high commitment to work. Her help was essential to all parts of the book production and conference preparation. Mrs. Anne Lehan was a very enthusiastic and dependable worker during the preparation and formatting of the manuscripts. This book would certainly not have been possible without both. Finally, the generous contributions of the following companies have to be mentioned: SAFA Saarfilterasche-Vertriebs-GmbH & Co. KG, Baden-Baden Bundesverband Mineralische Rohstoffe e.V., Köln Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.V., Düsseldorf Fa. BauMineral GmbH, Herten Fa. MC-Bauchemie Müller GmbH & Co. KG, Bottrop Bilfinger Berger AG, Mannheim Stuttgart, July 2007, Christian U. Grosse (Editor) Table of Contents Brief Review of the Scientific Work of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans W. Reinhardt .... Christian U. Grosse 1 Towards a better visibility of outstanding research ........................................ Michel Brusin, Matthieu Duvivier 15 Part I Aspects of Structural Engineering Actual tendencies in structural fastening technology...................................... Rolf Eligehausen, Werner Fuchs 23 Constitutive Laws for Concrete and their Application with Numerical Methods................................................................................. Ulrich Häussler-Combe, Patrick Pröchtel 31 Innovations in concrete technology: Interaction between research, codes and applications .................................................................................... Dick A. Hordijk 39 Ultra-high performance concrete for the roof of a research hot water storage ............................................................................................. Achim Lichtenfels 49 Numerical modelling of cam-pocket coupling systems for concrete lining.... Peter-Michael Mayer, Ana Libreros-Bertini, Hans M. Hilber 57 Uncertainty models for safety assessment of textile reinforced concrete structures .......................................................................................... Bernd Möller, Wolfgang Graf, Andreas Hoffmann, Jan-Uwe Sickert 67 Structural design of a large foundation slab close to reality, stiffness oriented design method CTD .......................................................................... Piotr Noakowski, Holger Leszinski 75 VIII Table of Contents Steel castings in architecture and engineering ................................................. Jörg Schlaich, Hans Schober Load-bearing and deformation behaviour of concrete beams reinforced in combination of both steel bars and bars made of glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP)................................................................................ Jürgen Schnell, Matthias Pahn 83 109 Part II Fiber Composites Mechanical and Fracture Mechanical Properties of Fine Grained Concrete for TRC Structures........................................................................................... Tanja Brockmann Enriched finite element representation of 2D multi-cracking and debonding in textile reinforced concrete................................................... Rostislav Chudoba, Frank Peiffer, Przemzslaw Zakrzewski, Jacub Jerabek, Josef Hegger 119 131 Fracture properties of high-strength hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete............. Luca Cominoli, Alberto Meda, Giovanni A. Plizzari 139 Textile Reinforced Concrete – A new Composite Material............................. Josef Hegger, Norbert Will, Karolin Rüberg 147 Viscoelastic behavior of a strain hardening Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete ........................................................................................ Aicha Kamen, Emmanuel Denarié, Eugen Brühwiler 157 Ductility and Fatigue Behaviour of Polymer-Modified and Fibre-Reinforced High-Performance Concrete ......................................... Ludger Lohaus, Steffen Anders 165 Bond Cracking and Tension Stiffening Properties of a Deformed Bar Embedded in HPFRCC ............................................................................. Hirozo Mihashi, Koji Otsuka, Hiroshi Akita, Toshifumi Kikuchi 173 Tensile strain-hardening FRC composites: Historical evolution since the 1960 .................................................................................................. Antoine E. Naaman 181 UHPFRC protection layer on the crash barrier walls of a bridge .................... Cornelius Oesterlee, Emmanuel Denarié, Eugen Brühwiler 203 Table of Contents IX Scale effect and combined loading of thin UHPFRC members ...................... Karl-Heinz Reineck, Stefan Greiner 211 Hybrid fibre concrete: is there a synergetic effect?......................................... Lucie Vandewalle 219 Ultra high performance fibre reinforced cement composite under dynamic loading.................................................................................... Silvia Weber, Andreas Rümmelin An Experimental Study on Bending Behavior of Cementitious Composites Reinforced in Combination with Carbon Textile and Short-Cut PVA Fiber................................................................................ Shilang Xu, Qinghua Li 229 237 Part III Repair Materials and Strengthening Methods Performance of concrete patch repair systems................................................ Hans-Dieter Beushausen, Mark Gavin Alexander Repair of cracked reinforced concrete by injection after accidental loading ........................................................................................... Maximilian Fuchs, Manfred Keuser Seismic strengthening of piers with partial use of high ductility cement........ Kenji Kosa, Kazuya Wakita, Hiroki Goda, Atsuhisa Ogawa Sprayed GFRP shear-strengthened reinforced concrete Beams under Impact Loading ..................................................................................... Sayed M. Soleimani, Nemkumar Banthia, Sidney Mindess 255 263 269 279 Part IV High Temperature and Fire Resistance High Strength Fiber Composites for fabricating fire-resistant wood with improved mechanical properties ............................................................. James W. Giancaspro, Perumalsamy N. Balaguru, Ken Chong 289 Mechanical properties of SFRC at high temperatures..................................... Matteo Colombo, Marco di Prisco 299 Modifications of material properties due to elevated temperatures ................ Éva Lublóy, György L. Balázs 307 X Table of Contents Part V Corrosion and Durability Influence of cyclic loading on the degradation of mechanical concrete properties........................................................................................... Rolf Breitenbücher, Hursit Ibuk, Hussein Alawieh A material model for creep and fatigue applied to asphalt .............................. Elisabeth Herz, Michael Vormwald 317 325 Simulation of the cyclic loading and damage behavior of gypsum composites ..................................................................................... 335 Wolfgang Lutz, Feng Guo, Siegfried Schmauder, Rüdiger Finn, Siemon Aicher Superabsorbent Polymers – An Additive to Increase the Freeze-Thaw Resistance of High Strength Concrete ............................................................. Sven Mönnig, Pietro Lura Corrosion products pressure needed to crack the concrete cover .................... Alejandro Munoz, Carmen Andrade, Andrés Torres 351 359 Failure mechanisms in fatigue of high strength steel wires for cable-constructions..................................................................................... Ulf Nürnberger 371 Durability aspects of AR-glass-reinforcement in textile reinforced concrete, Part 1: Material behaviour................................................................ Heidi Cuypers, Jeanette Orlowsky, Michael Raupach, Till Büttner 381 Durability aspects of AR-glass-reinforcement in textile reinforced concrete, Part 2: Modelling and exposure to outdoor weathering.................... Heidi Cuypers, Jeanette Orlowsky, Michael Raupach, Till Büttner, Jan Wastiels 389 Stress corrosion cracking mechanism of prestressing steels in bicarbonate solutions ................................................................................... Javier Sanchez, José Fullea, Carmen Andrade 397 Moisture Transport in Concrete – Field Tests and Hygrothermal Simulations ........................................................................ Andreas Holm, Martin Krus, Hartwig M. Künzel, Klaus Sedlbauer 405 Impact of Freeze-Thaw Degradation on FRP-Concrete Interface Fracture............................................................................................. Kolluru V. Subramaniam, Michel Ghosn, Mohamad Ali-Ahmad 419 Effective chloride barrier for reinforced concrete structures in order to extend the service-life.................................................................................. Folker H. Wittmann 427 Table of Contents XI Part VI Properties, Modeling and Testing of Fresh Concrete Setting and hardening of cement based materials: which differences between mortars and concretes? ..................................................................... Laurent Arnaud, Michaël Dierkens 441 Mechanical properties of cement mortars with superabsorbent polymers ...... Luís P. Esteves, Paulo Cachim, Victor M. Ferreira 451 Formwork Pressure of Concretes with high Workability................................ Tilo Proske, Carl-Alexander Graubner 463 Modern statistical methods for accessing the hardening process of concrete....................................................................................................... Eddy A.B. Koenders, H. van der Ham, Klaas van Breugel 471 Virtual concrete laboratory – Continuous numerical modelling of concrete from fresh to the hardened state ................................................... Viktor Mechtcherine, Sergiy Shyshko 479 Detection of early-age cracking due to restrained autogenous shrinkage ....... Patrick Fontana, Stephan Pirskawetz, Frank Weise, Birgit Meng 489 Ultrasonic and calorimetric measurements on fresh concrete with blast-furnace slag .................................................................................... Nicolas Robeyst, Elke Gruyaert, Nele De Belie 497 Fresh concrete pressure in diaphragm wall panels and resulting deformations .................................................................................... Hermann Schad, Pieter A. Vermeer, Annette Lächler 505 SCC and UHPC – Effect of Mixing Technology on Fresh Concrete Properties .......................................................................... Peter Schießl, Oliver Mazanec, Dirk Lowke 513 Analytical model for hydration of blended cement......................................... Geert De Schutter 523 Nucleation and growth of C-S-H phases on mineral admixtures .................... Jochen Stark, Bernd Möser, Frank Bellmann 531 Improving the slipform process via material manipulation............................. Nathan Tregger, Thomas Voigt, Surendra P. Shah 539 XII Table of Contents Part VII Non-destructive Testing Methods and Applications Sensing methods in civil engineering for an efficient construction management ................................................................................ Christian U. Grosse, Christoph Gehlen, Steven D. Glaser 549 Fast Non-Destructive Localisation of Prestressing Steel Fractures in Post-Tensioned Concrete Bridges................................................................ Bernd Hillemeier, Andrei Walther 563 New Possibilities for Ultrasonic Imaging of Concrete Elements..................... Martin Krause, Boris Gräfe, Frank Mielentz, Boris Milmann, Doreen Streicher Quantitative Non-Destructive Testing: The integration of non-destructive testing and probabilistic fracture mechanics.................................................... Jochen H. Kurz, Dragos Cioclov, Gerd Dobmann Advances in the in-situ assessment of construction materials ......................... Adrian E. Long, P.A.Muhammed Basheer, Lulu Basheer 575 583 591 Detection and analysis of microcracks in high-performance cementitious materials ..................................................................................... Pietro Lura, Jason Weiss, Ole Mejlhede Jensen 607 Acoustic Emission Techniques for Rebar Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete .................................................................................... Masayasu Ohtsu, Yuichi Tomoda 615 Online-Monitoring of Thermal Restraint Stresses for a Railways Trough Structure due to the Coupling of Trough and Underwater Concrete Slab ....... Ferdinand S. Rostásy 623 Radar and Fusion for Concrete Elements ........................................................ Christiane Maierhofer, Gerhard Zacher, Christoph Kohl, Jens Wöstmann Inspection of Prestressed Concrete Members using the Magnetic Leakage Flux Measurement Method – Estimation of Detection Limit .......................... Gottfried Sawade, Hans-Joachim Krause 631 639 Table of Contents XIII Abatement of Acid Mine Drainage Using Industrial Waste Products............. Amde M. Amde, Abebe Dinku, Omar Davies 653 Part VIII Environment and Sustainability Finely Ground Sand Fraction of Concrete Rubble as a Supplementary Cementitious Material..................................................................................... Detlef Heinz, Jürgen Schubert 667 Numerical Simulation of Air-Steam Leakage Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Walls......................................................................... Christoph Niklasch, Lothar Stempniewski 675 Sustainable building with concrete – a holistic approach along the Life-Cycle ....................................................................................... Gerd Thielen, Udo Wiens, Bruno Hauer 683 Dangerous Substances in Building Materials – Emissions from PCB Coated Ceiling Panels – Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) in Indoor Air...... Gerhard Volland, Dagmar Hansen, Dieter Zöltzer 691 Demountable concrete buildings, structural design of floor slabs with concrete elements and aluminium foam.................................................. Georg Christian Weiss 697 Reduction of the Penetration of Water-Hazardous Liquids into Concrete using Silica Fume and Polymer Dispersions................................................... Udo Wiens, Christoph Alfes 711 Part IX Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Materials Tension Softening Curves Described by Algebraic Formulas and Artificial Neural Networks....................................................................... Dariusz Alterman, Hiroshi Akita, Janusz Kasperkiewicz Effects of a clay additive on the properties of no-slump concrete .................. Harald Budelmann, Karim Hariri, Hans-Werner Krauss, Tim Malonn Development of thermal insulation materials with granular phase change composite............................................................................................ Zongjin Li, Xiangyu Li 723 731 741 XIV Table of Contents Examination of the relation between tensile/flexural strength and compressive strength of autoclaved aerated concrete according to prEN 12602 ...............................................................................................
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