Emerging Infectious Disease3

Emerging Infectious Disease3 - 16 The majority of...

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Emerging Infectious Diseases 10. Epizootic infections 10.1. West Nile Encephalitis Key Concepts: o Spread to humans from vertebrate host via bridge vector (mosquito able to bite both humans and birds, in case of WNV) that has transmitted virus as a result of globalization across continents o Rapidly expanding geographic distribution o Advanced age is greatest risk factor for severe neurologic disease 10.1.1. Virology: RNA flavivirus 10.1.2. Transmission cycle: Adapted from: Petersen et al. West Niile Virus: A Primer for the Clinician. Annals of Internal Medicine 2002;137:E173-E179 10.1.3. Clinical features: Symptom % Symptom % Fever 90 Myalgia 32 Fatigue 63 Photophobia 32 Δ Mental Status 58 Abnormal reflexes 32 Headache 58 Meningismus (stiff neck) 32 Weakness 42 Abdominal pain 21 Nausea 42 Motor weakness 16 Vomiting 42 Seizures
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Unformatted text preview: 16 The majority of infections are asymptomatic. Fever, neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms are most common. The neurologic effects are most severe in the elderly; cases of acute flaccid paralysis/polio-like syndrome have been reported. A high index of suspicion for WNV in setting of older adults with onset of unexplained encephalitis or meningitis in late summer or early fall should be maintained. 10.1.4. Diagnosis: 10.1.4.1. CSF examination: pleocytosis with lymphocytic predominance; elevated protein 10.1.4.2. Serologic examination: the most efficient diagnosis is detection of IgM antibody to WNV in serum or CSF by ELISA this test is available through local or state health departments. All cases should be reported to the CDC....
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This note was uploaded on 03/02/2012 for the course BSC BSC1086 taught by Professor Joystewart during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Emerging Infectious Disease3 - 16 The majority of...

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