Emerging Infectious Disease5

Emerging Infectious Disease5 - o fever abdominal pain...

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Emerging Infectious Diseases 9. Descriptions of Organisms 9.1. Bacillus anthracis A gram positive spore forming rod spores are resistant to a wide variety of environmental changes and may survive in soil for years -first disease to fulfill Koch’s postulates first bacterial disease for which a vaccine available (1881) toxin production mediates cell death allowing access of organisms to the circulation o antiphagocytic capsule is produced by organism as well as 3 virulence factors EF: edema factor LF: lethal factor PA: protective antigen o Toxins are formed when EF + PA combine (edema toxin) or LF + PA combine (lethal toxin) 9.1.1. Pathogenesis: Introduction of spore (skin, mucous membrane, lung) germination of spores and extracellular replication capsule and toxin production 3 disease states 1. gastrointestinal (rare) o ingestion of undercooked, contaminated meat
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Unformatted text preview: o fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea (may be bloody) 2. cutaneous o most common form of endemic anthrax o contracted by close contact of abraded skin with products o derived from infected herbivores (sheep, cattle, goats) 3. inhalational (the form of biological terrorism) o spores deposited in alveoli (2-6 µ) and ingested by pulmonary macrophages and carried to tracheobronchial or mediastinal lymph nodes where they germinate (1-6d) and toxin production occurs resulting in necrosis of the lymphatic tissue causing release of large numbers of B. anthracis which gain access into the circulation resulting in overwhelming bacteremia and death o 1-6 d ⇒ hemorrhagic mediastinitis CXR HALLMARK: widened mediastinum from hemorrhaged lymph nodes Subsequent bacteremia, pneumonia +/- meningitis and DEATH in 3-5 days...
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Emerging Infectious Disease5 - o fever abdominal pain...

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