Hospital Infection3

Hospital Infection3 - Bacteremia 3 % Other 12% 2. Agents...

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Hospital Infections 1. Overview Approximately 5 per cent of all patients develop a nosocomial infection as a result of being hospitalized, with an average resultant stay in-hospital of 13 days longer than controls. Costs nationally are 5 billion dollars. 1.1. Nosocomial Infection: An infection acquired in hospital which was not present or incubating at admission. Nosocomial infection (NI) incidence is related to severity of underlying disease, i.e. patients with a 50 per cent chance of death in 1 year have a 40 per cent chance of NI, whereas a patient with a non-fatal illness have only a 3 per cent chance of NI. Sites of NI are found in the following frequency: Urinary Tract 40 % Surgical Wound 25 % Respiratory Tract 20%
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Unformatted text preview: Bacteremia 3 % Other 12% 2. Agents Organisms that cause nosocomial infections are similar to community agents but there are exceptions:MRSA (Methicillin Resistant S. aureus), VRE (Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci), and ESBL (Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing Klebsiella and E. Coli) have become more common. 3. Encounter Organism transmission can occur from direct contact from hands, or indirect through air, fomites (environmental surfaces)! Blood transfusions may be contaminated. Staff may be carriers of organisms, such as S. aureus or group A B-hemolytic streptococci. Organisms in environment, like fungi, may be endemic, but due to nature of immunosuppression cause disease in some hosts (like BMT)...
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