Hospital Infections

Hospital Infections - been implicated in 3 epidemics...

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Hospital Infections 8. Primary Bacteremia Definition Primary bacteremia: not ascribable to another focus of infection, usually the result of a contaminated intravenous site or fluid (intra-arterial too!) or emanating from GI tract in neutropenic patient. There are many different areas from bottle to intravascular segment that can become contaminated during the course of IV therapy. Risk of IV infection related to type of cannula and duration in site. Usual pathogens are S. aureus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Candida. Antibiotic ointments at the site decrease bacterial colonization rates, local infection rates and local phlebitis. There have been nationwide outbreaks of IV fluid infections related to contamination of IV bottle--unusual pathogens have been involved-- Enterobacter agglomerans, a plant pathogen, has
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Unformatted text preview: been implicated in 3 epidemics, probably because of its ability to grow in D5W at room temperature. 9. Preventability It has been demonstrated that “Awareness Programs” among Staff, Nurses, etc. can decrease the extent of NI. Handwashing, which has been demonstrated to reduce transmission of organisms since 1600’s is not performed frequently or properly. Studies in ICU show that about 25-35% of patient encounters result in handwashing. New alcohol based scrub – 10 second pump and distribute is superior to washing hands. Prevention includes surveillance, education, teaching. Each hospital mandated to have infection control committee. Most have department with hospital epidemiologist, infection control practitioners....
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