CHEM011(Hilderbrandt)FinalExamReviewPacketforTeston12-15-10SAMPLE

CHEM011(Hilderbrandt)FinalExamReviewPacketforTeston12-15-10SAMPLE

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Chapter 1: Matter and Measurement Chapter 1 Skills o Distinguish between elements, compounds, and mixtures o Use significant figures, scientific notation, metric units, and dimensional analysis in calculations Chemistry : study of the composition, structure, and properties of substances and the transformations (chemical reactions) by which substances are changed into other substances. Matter : anything that occupies space and has mass - Exists in three states: o Solid - fixed volume and shape o Liquid - fixed volume, shape determined by its container o Gas - no fixed volume or fixed shape Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures (See Figure 1.9 on page 9) o Pure substance : homogeneous portion of matter with a definite composition ± Can be an element or a compound ± Can not be separated into other kinds of matter by physical processes o Element : contains only one kind of atom ± Can not be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or physical means ± See Table 1.2 on page 6. Learn the names and symbols of these elements. o Compound : contains two or more kinds of atoms in fixed proportions ± Can be broken down into elements by chemical processes o Mixture : component substances exist together without combining chemically. ± Can be separated by physical means ± Heterogeneous : contains parts with different properties. Nonuniform composition. ± Homogeneous : same properties throughout. Uniform composition. Example is a solution. Separation of Mixtures o Distillation : Based on the volatility of different substances. See Figure 1.13 on page 12. o Filtration : Used when a mixture consists of a liquid and a solid. See Figure 1.12 on page 12. o Chromatography : General name for methods of separating mixtures that employ two phases ± A solid stationary phase and a liquid/gas phase. o Paper chromatography : Solid phase is paper. See Figure 1.14 on page 12. o Liquid column chromatography : Solid phase is a resin. o Gas chromatography : Solid phase is glass beads. Physical Change : change in the form of a substance, not in its chemical composition See Figure 1.4 on page 5. CHEM 011 (Hilderbrandt) Final Exam Review Packet for Test on 12/15/10 (SAMPLE) Page 1 of 28
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compounds o Explain how ions are formed o Write the name of ionic compounds from chemical formulas o Write the chemical formula for ionic compounds from names o Name or write chemical formulas for inorganic binary compounds and for acids Famous chemists and their contributions to our understanding of the atom: o Atomic Theory ± Dalton (1766-1844) – Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1803) and a New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808): See page 38 in the Text Atomic Structure o Thompson (1856-1940) - Electron and “Plum pudding” model of the atom o Millikan (1868-1953) - Oil drop experiment - Mass of an electron o Rutherford (1871-1937) - Gold foil experiments - Proton and the nuclear atom Modern View of the Atom o Nucleus : contains protons and neutrons - accounts for the mass of an
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CHEM011(Hilderbrandt)FinalExamReviewPacketforTeston12-15-10SAMPLE

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