final philosophy paper DONE

final philosophy paper DONE - Langan 1 Professor Boyer...

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Langan 1 Professor Boyer Philosophy Egoism of Nietzsche and Rawls Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche and John Rawls are both egoists in the basic understanding of human nature. However Nietzsche appears to be an unrestrained egoist, believing that it is moral for a person who is driven to the will to power to assume the his/ her will. While Rawls personifies a restrained egoist, believing that there should be a just, well ordered society where there is a reflective equilibrium of all relationships of people. These philosophers both hold an egoistical philosophy, yet have different views of how egoism is understood. Nietzsche is identified as an unrestrained egoist. He believes that the simple words of “good” and “bad” have been altered from their original meaning, affecting the philosophical views of society, which he is trying to fix. Jacquette reveals: Nietzsche wants to turn our moral thinking upside down so that it will finally be right side up. He makes us reconsider virtually everything that we may otherwise believe to be well established in moral thinking. His method is to investigate the origin and transformation of the meanings of key terms of ethical appraisal, especially across several cultures. (Pg. 371) Nietzsche attempts to change both judgments and deepest instincts about what is morally right and wrong. In terms of the word “good” Nietzsche discovers that it was known to mean powerful and/or noble. The powerful and/or noble people of society have strength and attain the will to power. “Bad” was referred to when talking about the weak people of society since the failed to possess the will to power. Nietzsche as well as Jacquette recognizes that these terms have changed meaning mentioning: It is only thereafter, with the passing of time, that the language of moral appraisal slowly came to have its present connotations, changing from the
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Langan 2 distinction between good and bad to the distinction between good and evil, in a dramatic reversal of application of the word “good” from the strong and powerful to the weak and oppressed, and of the word “bad” from originally meaning the weak and powerless, transformed through a reversal of values, to designate instead the strong and powerful, no longer as “good” but evil. (Pg. 390) The ressentiment of weak was a campaign of psychological warfare. This campaign made the powerful feel guilty and be looked upon as evil since they had command over the weak. Thus, the weak were pursued to be good since unlike the powerful/noble people of society, they did not try to advance at the expense of others. Nietzsche sees this role reversal as inconsistent: He argues that those who have no better weapon to use against the naturally powerful eventually turn to a method of disarming the aristocratic warriors psychologically, by making them ashamed of their strength and guilty in exercising it against the weak. (Pg. 391) Nietzsche theorizes that the powerful should not have guilt for the weak, who are often
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final philosophy paper DONE - Langan 1 Professor Boyer...

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