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2116+PP+Unit+0.2ppt - Music 2116 Music 2116 Newcomers: 2...

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Unformatted text preview: Music 2116 Music 2116 Newcomers: 2 handouts down front; fill out and leave the small one Music 2116 Music 2116 Continuation from Wednesday’s class (and Wednesday’s lecture is on Blackboard if you missed it). Coming events… Coming events… Monday: Preliminary Unit continues Wednesday: Regular reading & listening assignments begin Your selection of a Grading Option Thursday: Preliminary Unit Quiz on Scholar before 2355 Next Friday: Terms Quiz 1 completed on Scolar (Note: These may be extended). Concerts this weekend Concerts this weekend Tonight, 7:30 p.m., Burruss Auditorium: “Bandarama” concert by Virginia Tech bands to welcome 500 High School Honor Band members — Free Saturday: 7:00 p.m., Recital Salon, Open Chamber Music Rehearsals—Free Sunday, 1:00 p.m., Burruss Auditorium: concert by 5 Honor Bands — Free. Continuing with Continuing with Music Notation Musical Forms Musical Instruments Music Ensembles Reading music notation Reading music notation The 5 lines of the “staff” are a simple graph The vertical axis indicates pitch, from low to high, using both the lines and the spaces, and is labeled with a “clef” that identifies the pitches The clefs are stylized letters that label the notes C, G, and F The horizontal axis measures time, reading from left to right, and is divided into “measures” by “bar lines”. Notation continued Notation continued Along with the clef, there is a “key signature” at the beginning indicating which notes are to be raised or lowered throughout the piece with “sharp” (#) or “flat” (b) signs These can be temporarily altered during the piece by “sharp,” “flat,” or “natural” signs attached to individual notes. Notation continued Notation continued The third labeling element is a “time signature” made up of two numbers The upper number tells how many notes or “beats” there are in each measure The lower number tells what note value gets the “beat” The division of the measures into regular beats is the “meter” of the piece. Notation completed Notation completed The color and shape of the notes indicates their relative time value American terminology uses fractions A “whole note” is white with no stem, and is worth 4 beats A “half note” is white with a stem, and is worth 2 beats A “quarter note” is black with a stem, and is worth 1 beat An “eighth note” is black with a stem, and is worth half a beat There are also specific signs for rests for each note value A dot after a note or rest adds half its value to the note. The Periods of Music History The Periods of Music History Pre­Classical: a reaction against the complexity of baroque music, about 1730­ 1760 Classical: the prevailing musical style about 1760­1820 Romantic: about 1820­1918 Between the World Wars: 1918­1945 Post­War: 1945­today The Meaning of “Classical” The Meaning of “Classical” Properly, Ancient or “Classical” Greece Many “Greek Revivals,” including late 18th century No revival of Greek music Revival of Greek ideals of proportion, balance, form In music, late 18th century, approximately 1760­ 1820. “Classical” music Music of Mozart, Haydn, early Beethoven This music remained popular in 19th century instead of going out of style—a first! “Classical” came to mean symphonic or art music 20th century division of music into “classical” and “popular” is unusual and unrealistic. Small­scale Classic­Romantic Small­scale Classic­Romantic Musical Forms Large­scale forms are multimovement, made up of individual pieces, or movements, that go together Individual movements have their own forms Binary form 2 contrasting sections labeled A and B Ternary form 3 sections; one may be a repetition ABA—statement, contrast, return AAB—statement, repetition, contrast ABB—statement, contrast, emphasis ABC—C is often a repeated refrain. Large­scale Forms Large­scale Forms The “form” of a large work is the contrast among individual movements Opera, oratorio, cantata or musical: The “book” is broken into individual “numbers” Symphony: a multi­movement work for orchestra Sonata: a multi­movement work for solo instrument (often piano, or accompanied by piano) Trio, quartet, or quintet: a multimovement work for chamber ensemble Concerto: a multimovement work for soloist with orchestra. Building a Musical Theme Building a Musical Theme Motives are musical “words” Phrases are musical “sentences” Themes are musical “paragraphs” A theme can repeat with “open” and “closed” endings Transitions can use motives from the theme, or new material. Similarity, Contrast and Similarity, Contrast and Variation Similarity creates musical unity Contrast creates musical variety Variation combines unity and variety. Shaping a Movement Shaping a Movement Defining form with similarity Same melody, different tonal center Same melody, different accompaniment Defining form with contrast Different melody takes over Original melody comes back Defining form with variation Varying the melody in each repetition Developing phrases or motives. Why did new forms develop? Why did new forms develop? When vocal music was most important, there was always a text to suggest a musical form As purely instrumental music became more and more important, new forms not suggested by text were needed One of the most successful large­scale forms was the Sonata Form. Multimovement Sonata Form Multimovement Sonata Form 1st movement 2nd movement Contrasting tonality; tempo is adagio (slow) or andante (walking) (optional) 3rd movement Defines the tonality; tempo is allegro (happy) Tonic key; minuet (moderate triple meter) or scherzo (very fast triple meter) 4th movement or Finale Tonic key; allegro or presto (fastest tempo). Very Important Distinction! Very Important Distinction! Sonata form Large scale, made up of several contrasting movements—multimovement form Sonata­Allegro form The form of a single movement So­called because often used for the 1st movement (Allegro) of a Sonata form piece. Sonata­allegro form Sonata­allegro form Most important Classic­Romantic form Used for single movements “A drama between two contrasting tonal centers” A 3­part form Exposition (tonic key, moving to dominant) Development (dominant key, moving through different keys) Recapitulation (returns to tonic key). Additions to Sonata­allegro form Additions to Sonata­allegro form Introduction Optional Often in a contrasting slow tempo Might not use thematic material Coda A musical summary An ending “When the music’s over, but the noise isn’t!”. Uses of Sonata­allegro form Uses of Sonata­allegro form 1st movements of Symphonies, Sonatas, Concertos, chamber pieces—in other words, the first movements of Sonata Form large­ scale pieces Sometimes other movements in those same pieces as well Single­movement Overtures, Symphonic Poems Sometimes used in vocal pieces. Other Single­movement forms Other Single­movement forms Theme and variations Ternary song form Rondo form Character pieces or Suite Cyclic form. Musical Instruments Musical Instruments The tools of the musical craft Instruments in Changing Times Instruments in Changing Times Instruments for accompaniment 1500s — lute 1600­1750 — harpsichord 1750­1950 — piano 1950­1980 — guitar 1980­2008 — keyboard Solo Instruments 1500­1650 — all instruments equal 1650­1950 — violin 1800­1970 — piano 1970­2008 — synthesizer. Instruments in Changing Times Orchestral Instruments 1700­1914 — strings, gradually adding more woodwinds, brass, and percussion 1914­2003 — other influences: jazz, Broadway, economics, new instruments Chamber Music Instruments 1600­1750 — strings and woodwinds equal, accompanied by basso continuo 1750­2003 — separate string, woodwind, brass ensembles, sometimes with piano. “Standard” Ensembles since 1750 The Orchestra The Wind Band (or Concert Band) The Chorus or Choir Chamber Ensembles with strings with piano without strings Popular music ensembles. The Orchestra—Growth The Orchestra—Growth Mid­1700s: string band with pairs of oboes and horns Late 1700s: string band with pairs of flutes, oboes, sometimes clarinets, bassoons, horns, trumpets, timpani Early 1800s: added woodwinds, trombones, the winds often in 3s Late 1800s: winds in 3s or 4s, trombones & tuba, expanded percussion; large orchestra was standard. The Orchestra—Functions The Orchestra—Functions Symphony Orchestra Opera Orchestra Ballet Orchestra Church Orchestra Dance Orchestra Theater Orchestra Small concert orchestra, or Jazz band, perhaps with strings, or Rock band, perhaps with winds or strings. The Wind Band The Wind Band Brass & percussion, perhaps with woodwinds Modeled on military bands: marching, formations, entertainment, pageantry Town bands: civic functions & entertainment Professional bands: concert music & entertainment. The Jazz Band The Jazz Band Early Dixieland jazz bands modeled on small marching bands Big band, symphonic jazz: expanded sections Wind instruments not in Rock bands at first “Blood, Sweat & Tears,” early 60s “Chicago Transit Authority,” early 60s Motown sound, 60s Became “horn line”. The Chorus or Choir The Chorus or Choir Originated in the church Medieval: men only (women only in convents) Renaissance: boys and men Baroque: some women in opera choruses Classic­Romantic: women slowly accepted Always small (8­20) until 19th century Church choirs inspired school choruses. Chamber Music Ensembles Chamber Music Ensembles With strings Baroque Trio Sonata: 2 violins, cello, b.c. String Trio: violin, viola, cello String Quartet: 2 violins, viola, cello String Quintet: Quartet with a second viola, second cello, or bass Any of the above with a woodwind replacing one violin. Chamber Music Ensembles Chamber Music Ensembles With piano Piano Trio: violin, cello, piano Piano Quartet: violin, viola, cello, piano Piano Quintet: String quartet, piano Piano is an equal partner, not just accompaniment. Chamber Music Ensembles Chamber Music Ensembles Without strings Baroque Trio Sonatas with winds Woodwind Quintet: flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, horn Brass Quintet: 2 trumpets, horn, trombone, tuba Specialized “choirs” of wind instruments. Standard 20 Popular Ensembles Standard 20 o Most use a “rhythm section” Keyboard, bass, drum set are standard Guitar(s), percussion, latin drums optional Jazz Combos Piano, bass, drums, optional guitar 1 or more wind instruments optional. Jazz Bands Jazz Bands Dixieland: trumpet, clarinet, trombone, rhythm section Hotel band: 3 brass, 3 saxes, 3 rhythm Big Band: 3­4 trumpets, trombones, 5 saxes with doubles, 3­5 rhythm Symphonic Jazz: larger sections, may add horn(s), mellophones, tuba, woodwind doubles. Vocal Groups Vocal Groups 1910s: Barbershop, Gospel 1930s: Big Band Groups, 3­5 singers 1940s: Independent vocal groups 1950s: Jazz vocal groups 1960s: “Bands” are vocal groups too A cappella groups always around; doo­wop groups from late 1950s. Rock Bands Rock Bands 1950s: lead guitar, bass, drums, rhythm guitar optional 1960s: expanded with keyboard, rhythm guitar, percussion, latin drums 1970s: more keyboards, keyboard controllers, horn lines 1980s: synthesizers, sequencers, drum machines 1990s: some bands completely digital. Traditional & Country Bands Traditional & Country Bands Always small, usually a string band with vocals, sometimes drums Traditional: guitar, dulcimer, mandolin, fiddle, bass, banjo & vocals Folk & Contemporary Folk: guitars & vocals Country: guitars (including Dobro & pedal steel), bass, drums, vocals; keyboard & fiddle optional. ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/02/2012 for the course MUS 2116 taught by Professor Howell during the Spring '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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