Chapter16 - Concise History of Western Music Fourth Edition...

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By Barbara Russano Hanning Based on J. Peter Burkholder, Donald J. Grout, and Claude V. Palisca, A History of Western Music , Eighth Edition Concise History of Western Music Fourth Edition Chapter 16 The Late Eighteenth Century: Haydn and Mozart
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PRELUDE
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Classical era Classicism reached its peak in the late eighteenth century. Enlightened rulers, like Joseph II in Vienna, fostered a liberal atmosphere that attracted musicians from all over Europe.
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Haydn and Mozart These are the two most remarkable composers of the late eighteenth century. Both experienced currents leading to the French Revolution. The two were friends; they admired and were influenced by each other. Both were practicing musicians. Mozart: virtuoso pianist and good string player Haydn: fine violinist and conducted from the harpsichord and violin Both were prolific composers.
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Differences Haydn lived a long life; Mozart died at thirty-five. Haydn matured slowly; Mozart was a child prodigy. Haydn served a single patron for most of his career; Mozart did not have a principal patron. Haydn found his musical roots in local traditions around Vienna; Mozart traveled extensively and absorbed international styles.
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FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN (1732– 1809)
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Positions Haydn spent nearly thirty years at the Eszterházy court. Later in his career, he traveled extensively filling commissions.
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Esterháza This remote estate rivaled Versailles in splendor. Haydn’s duties Compose music Conduct performances Train and supervise musical personnel Keep musical instruments in repair
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Esterháza Haydn built an orchestra of about twenty-five performers and gave weekly concerts, occasional opera performances, and daily chamber music sessions. Nikolaus played a large string instrument with sympathetic strings called a baryton, for which Haydn composed numerous works. Although Haydn kept abreast of current musical developments, his isolation at Eszterháza and the encouragement of his patron helped him to become original.
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HAYDN’S SYMPHONIES
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Haydn composed more than 100 symphonies At least 92 were completed by 1789; most were written for the Eszterháza orchestra, directed by Haydn while he played the violin. Many symphonies have nicknames, few of which came from the composer. Commissioned works Paris Symphonies (Nos. 82–87) during the 1780s London Symphonies (Nos. 93–104) during the 1790s for a concert series organized by Johann Peter Salomon
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Symphonic form Early symphonies Typically three movements: fast, slow, fast Some have four movements in the same key, recalling the sonata da chiesa.
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He adopted the four-movement pattern in the late 1760s. Allegro
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This note was uploaded on 03/02/2012 for the course MUS 2116 taught by Professor Howell during the Spring '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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Chapter16 - Concise History of Western Music Fourth Edition...

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