Chapter17 - Concise History of Western Music Fourth Edition...

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By Barbara Russano Hanning Based on J. Peter Burkholder, Donald J. Grout, and Claude V. Palisca, A History of Western Music , Eighth Edition Concise History of Western Music Fourth Edition Chapter 17 Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
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PRELUDE
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Events in 1972 George Washington was president of the United States. Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were imprisoned in France. Vienna presented an atmosphere of frivolous gaiety.
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Events in 1972 Haydn was at the height of his fame. Mozart had died in December 1791. Beethoven moved from Bonn to Vienna in November 1792, where he established himself with aristocratic support.
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The changing world Revolutions in France and America brought far-reaching changes. The industrial revolution influenced medicine, science, and industry. Society lost faith in authority and believed in progress.
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Beethoven’s music His output is small in comparison to those of Haydn and Mozart. He wrote nine symphonies, while Haydn composed over 100 and Mozart nearly 60. Beethoven’s works are longer and grander. Beethoven wrote deliberately and struggled at times. Sketchbooks document his often-tedious working-out of ideas.
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Sketch for Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major (Eroica)
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Beethoven’s three periods Beethoven’s works customarily are divided into three periods First period, to about 1802 He assimilated the musical language of the time. Works: six string quartets of Op. 18, the first ten piano sonatas (through Op. 14), the first three piano concertos, and the first two symphonies
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Beethoven’s three periods Second period, to about 1816 Rugged individualism asserted itself. Works: Symphonies Nos. 3–8, Fidelio, the last two piano concertos, the Violin Concerto, five string quartets, and piano sonatas (through Op. 90)
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Beethoven’s three periods Third period Music is more reflective and introspective Works: last five piano sonatas, the Diabelli Variations, Missa solemnis, the Ninth Symphony, and the last string quartets
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FIRST PERIOD
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Support Beethoven supported himself through several sources. Patrons Prince Karl von Lichnowsky gave him rooms in one of his houses. Prince Lobkowitz, Prince Kinsky, and Archduke Rudolph set up an annuity for him to stay in Vienna. Publishing music Performing as a pianist in concerts Giving piano lessons
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Piano sonatas Most of Beethoven’s earliest works are for piano. He dedicated his first three sonatas to
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Chapter17 - Concise History of Western Music Fourth Edition...

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