Chapter18 - Concise History of Western Music Fourth Edition...

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By Barbara Russano Hanning Based on J. Peter Burkholder, Donald J. Grout, and Claude V. Palisca, A History of Western Music , Eighth Edition Concise History of Western Music Fourth Edition Chapter 18 The Early Romantics
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PRELUDE
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Orchestral music The orchestra became the medium par excellence of Romantic music because of its variety of colors and textures. Challenges to composers Mastering the orchestra in symphonic composition Coming to terms with the towering figure of Beethoven
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Orchestral music Public concerts were increasingly comprised of middle class audiences. Symphonic music became a means of communicating with the public. Berlioz, Mendelssohn, and Schumann conducted their own music.
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Songs German song (lied) was an outlet for intense personal feelings. The lied enjoyed a brilliant period in the nineteenth century.
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Songs The ballad appeared in Germany toward the end of the eighteenth century. This poetic genre imitated folk cultures. Most poems are long and alternate narrative and dialogue. Ballads described romantic adventures and supernatural incidents. The greater length necessitated more varied musical settings.
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Songs The piano became an equal partner with the voice in lieder. Songs were sometimes grouped into cycles, allowing a story to be told through a succession of songs.
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Piano music The piano became larger and stronger. It met the demands of grandiose concertos and was capable of conveying intimate expression. Composers developed new ways of writing for the instrument.
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Chamber music Chamber music lacked the spontaneity and glamour of other genres. Arch-romantics, such as Berlioz, Liszt, and Wagner, contributed almost nothing to the repertory. The best chamber works were written by those closest to the Classical tradition: Schubert, Brahms, Mendelssohn, and Schumann.
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FRANZ SCHUBERT (1797– 1828): LIEDER
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Output Composed over 600 songs Schubertiads Gatherings of friends for home concerts Many songs were first performed in these settings.
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Melody Schubert created beautiful melodies that captured the spirit of the poetry. Many melodies are simple and folklike. Other melodies suggest sweetness and melancholy. Some melodies are declamatory and dramatic.
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Schubert, Heidenröslein, m. 1-4
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Schubert, Der Atlas, m. 5-12
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Schubert’s harmonies reinforce the text. Gruppe aus dem Tartarus (Group from Hades, 1817) features bold harmonies. Das Heimweh (Homesickness, 1816) alternates minor and major keys and triads. Chromatic coloring can be observed in Am Meer (By the Sea) from Schwanengesang (Swan Song, 1828). Modulations typically move toward flat
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This note was uploaded on 03/02/2012 for the course MUS 2116 taught by Professor Howell during the Spring '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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Chapter18 - Concise History of Western Music Fourth Edition...

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