Chapter21 - Concise History of Western Music Fourth Edition Chapter 21 Music in the Later Nineteenth Century Europe Nationalism and the Classical

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By Barbara Russano Hanning Based on J. Peter Burkholder, Donald J. Grout, and Claude V. Palisca, A History of Western Music , Eighth Edition Concise History of Western Music Fourth Edition Chapter 21 Music in the Later Nineteenth Century: Europe, Nationalism, and the Classical Tradition in America
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PRELUDE
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Rise of national styles An international style was created in the eighteenth century. The nineteenth century saw a movement toward nationalism. Emphasis on native literature and linguistic traditions Interest in folklore Patriotism Craving for independent identity
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Rise of national styles Germany and Italy became unified countries. Musical nationalism was particularly strong in Russia and in the countries of eastern Europe.
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Other trends France explored new paths of making music. Italian opera became more realistic. The Austro-German classical tradition was transplanted to the United States.
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THE AUSTRO-GERMAN TRADITION
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Wagnerian influence Many composers fell under the spell of Wagner. Most sought to find their own voice while exploring his innovations in harmony and orchestration. Preferred genres Solo song with piano accompaniment Symphony and symphonic poem Opera
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Hugo Wolf (1860-1903) Wolf is best known for adapting Wagner’s methods to the German lied. Wolf composed 250 lieder, mostly during periods of intense activity between 1887 and 1897. He published five principal collections of songs, each devoted to a single poet or group, thereby stressing an equality of words and music.
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Hugo Wolf (1860-1903) Like Wagner, he worked toward a fusion of poetry and music, and of voice and piano. Lebe wohl! (Farewell!), from the Mörike songbook, reflects Wagner’s influences. The arioso vocal line has speechlike rhythms. Continuity is sustained in the piano part. Chromatic harmonies are inspired by the idiom of Tristan und Isolde .
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Lebe wohl! , mm. 1-2
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GUSTAV MAHLER (1860–1911)
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His life Mahler was the leading Austro-German composer of symphonies after Brahms and one of the great masters for voice and orchestra. Mahler influenced Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern.
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Symphonies He conveyed a sense of life experience in his symphonies. Many project or imply a program
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Symphonies Songs played a large role Themes from his Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (Songs of a Wayfarer) appear in his Symphony No. 1. Voices are included in four symphonies. Symphonies Nos. 2, 3, and 4 use themes from Mahler’s songs based on texts from Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The Boy’s Magic Horn).
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Symphonies Orchestration Huge numbers of performers, extending up to Symphony No. 8, the “Symphony of a Thousand” Great imagination in the combination of instruments, often only a few playing at a time
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Kindertotenlieder (Songs on the Death of Children, 1901–4) is based on poems by Friedrich Ruckert. ̈ The spare use of instruments creates a
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This note was uploaded on 03/02/2012 for the course MUS 2116 taught by Professor Howell during the Spring '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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Chapter21 - Concise History of Western Music Fourth Edition Chapter 21 Music in the Later Nineteenth Century Europe Nationalism and the Classical

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