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Chapter23 - Concise History of Western Music Fourth Edition...

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© 2010, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. By Barbara Russano Hanning Based on J. Peter Burkholder, Donald J. Grout, and Claude V. Palisca, A History of Western Music , Eighth Edition Concise History of Western Music Fourth Edition Chapter 23 Music, Politics, and the People in the European Twentieth Century
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PRELUDE
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Music and politics in the nineteenth century Some writers felt that music transcended politics. Musicology focused on the styles and procedures of past music, not on its social functions, but music still could not escape its association with the social elite and nationalism.
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Audience reception Twentieth-century composers were concerned by the gap between modernism and audiences. They began to compose in more accessible styles. They wrote music for films, theater, and dance, some of which addressed social issues. Music in a modern style was written for amateur performers. Nationalism continued to be a strong force.
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Governments Most governments sponsored musical activities. Public schools increasingly included music in the curriculum. Government-controlled radio in Europe employed musicians. Totalitarian governments insisted that music support the state and its ideologies.
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The avant-garde 前前前 Originally a French military term: an advance group that prepares the way for the main army The term was applied to French artists who were exploring new territory in the mid-nineteenth century. Music adopted the term around the time of World War I.
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THE AVANT-GARDE
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Definition Art that seeks to overthrow accepted aesthetics and start fresh Composers challenged the concept of classics. The music is marked not by a shared style but by shared attitudes—an unrelenting opposition to the status quo.
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Erik Satie (1866-1925) The music of this French composer wittily upends conventions. In the three Gymnopédies (1888) for piano, Satie challenged Romantic notions of expressivity and individuality with plain and unemotional music.
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Erik Satie (1866-1925) Satie composed several sets of piano pieces between 1900 and 1915. He used surrealistic titles such as Three Pieces in the Form of a Pear (1903), which actually has seven pieces. He added directions to the performer that satirize Debussy.
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Costume for Three Pieces in the Form of a Pear (1890-1903)
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Erik Satie (1866-1925) Embryons desséchés (Dried Embryos, 1913) Set of three piano works The second mocks Chopin’s funeral march; the score is marked “they all begin to cry.” The third satirizes Wagner’s leitmotivs and ends with a lengthy cadence that suggests Beethoven.
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Erik Satie (1866-1925) Satie did not attempt to write masterworks. He challenged the basis of classical tradition. His larger works sought to fix attention on the present.
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Erik Satie (1866-1925) His “realistic ballet” Parade (1916–17) was a collaborative production with writer Jean Cocteau, choreographer Léonide Massine, and Picasso.
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