4_Loudspeaker

4_Loudspeaker - Loudspeakers Juan P Bello Outline 1....

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Unformatted text preview: Loudspeakers Juan P Bello Outline 1. Loudspeaker Types 2. Loudspeaker Enclosures 3. Multiple drivers, Crossover Networks 4. Performance Measurements Loudspeakers Microphone: acoustical sound energy ➔ electrical energy Loudspeaker: electrical energy ➔ acoustical sound energy Moving-Coil Backwards dynamic mic Most common: transistor radios, PAs, studio monitors Permanent magnet with wire coil inside ring-shaped gap Magnet attached to speaker cone Electrical input ➔ A/C current in coil ➔ diaphragm vibration ➔ sound waves Omnidirectional pattern Moving Coil in Action Electrostatic Backwards condenser mic Large, flat diaphragm between two oppositely charged plates (+) and (-) Electrical input to diaphragm alternates its charge, causing vibration. Expensive and harder to manufacture, usually lacking in bass response Figure 8 pattern Ribbon Backwards ribbon mic Ribbon suspended between N pole and S pole magnets Electrical input applied to ends of ribbon induces alternating magnetic field, causing vibration Also more expensive to produce, low impedance and acoustical output Figure 8 pattern Free-cone Dynamic Speaker Issues Back-to-front cancellation: sound wave emitted from rear of driver is opposite in phase (180º) to sound wave emitted from front, more prevalent at lower frequencies Free-cone resonance: speaker cone will vibrate more strongly at its natural “resonant frequency” Causes distortion of signal: “ringing”, “boominess” Speaker Enclosures Designed to reduce the free-cone problems of cancellation and resonance Also referred to as “baffles” or “cabinets” Several types: two of the most common are the “sealed” enclosure and the “bass-reflex” enclosure Closed-box Enclosures Completely sealed, usually contains sound-absorbing material inside Soundwaves emitted from rear of driver do not reach open air Cheaper to manufacture, more common Bass Reflex Enclosures Air inside bass port resonates at specified low frequency Reduces movement of speaker cone at bass port frequency ➔ increases efficiency and low frequency output Frequencies below resonant frequency are not acoustically loaded, can cause overexcursion of the speaker cone Horn-loading Placing horn in front of diaphragm Usually has limited frequency range and uneven response Long-throw horn Concentrates sound in the forward direction Used in P.A.’s Acoustical lens: diffracts sound over wider angle (better for people close to the speakers) Re-entrant horn Driver facing backward, horn much shorter Often used in hand-held horns, subway Multiple-Driver Systems A single driver is not adequate for producing frequencies across the entire audible spectrum Tweeter - small, light, very responsive 3 kHz - 20 kHz Often uses convex “dome” construction Bass/mid driver - larger, heavier, less responsive 30 Hz - 3 kHz Require more power to drive greater mass Require “crossover” network to route frequency signals to the right driver “Passive” Crossover Network Uses passive components to divide signal: resistors, capacitors, inductors Hi-pass filter: capacitor with lower impedance for high frequencies Low-pass filter: inductor with lower impedance for low frequencies Band-pass filter: Capacitor and inductor in series “Active” Crossover Network Uses “active” electronic circuitry (i.e. transistors, valves) to divide audio signal Each driver has own power amplifier Downsides: more expensive, complex Benefits: Lower distortion, greater flexibility of design, better control of frequency response, clearer highs, tighter lows Performance Measurements Impedance - standard is 8 Ω, but varies over frequency Most notable is the “bass hump” located at the system resonant frequency Other dips/peaks due to inductive/capacitive elements in the crossover and drivers A bass-reflex enclosure Significantly lowers the impedance at the bass port resonant frequency But introduces a peak at the bass driver free-cone resonant frequency Other standard loudspeaker impedances include 4 Ω and 15 Lower resistance: Harder to drive, draw more current Higher resistance: Easier to drive, draw less current ➔ but less power Sealed Enclosure Cabinet Resonance 70 Hz Bass-Reflex Enclosure Bass Port Resonance 40 Hz Bass Driver Free-cone Resonance 20 Hz Performance Measurements, pt.2 Sensitivity: the effectiveness in converting electrical sound energy ➔ acoustical sound energy Most energy lost to heat, efficiency can range from 1% (typical hi-fi speaker) to 10% (horn-loaded system) Standard measurement: 1 W input, 8 Ω resistance, SPL measurement 1m from speaker, i.e. 86 dB W-1 Distortion: tends to be 2nd-harmonic distortion - producing frequencies octave higher. At lower freq ≈ 10%, mid-high freq ≈ 1% Usually not perceptually relevant ✚ = Performance Measurements, pt.2 Sensitivity: the effectiveness in converting electrical sound energy ➔ acoustical sound energy Most energy lost to heat, efficiency can range from 1% (typical hi-fi speaker) to 10% (horn-loaded system) Standard measurement: 1 W input, 8 Ω resistance, SPL measurement 1m from speaker, i.e. 86 dB W-1 Distortion: tends to be 2nd-harmonic distortion - producing frequencies octave higher. At lower freq ≈ 10%, mid-high freq ≈ 1% Usually not perceptually relevant ✚ = Performance Measurements, pt.2 Sensitivity: the effectiveness in converting electrical sound energy ➔ acoustical sound energy Most energy lost to heat, efficiency can range from 1% (typical hi-fi speaker) to 10% (horn-loaded system) Standard measurement: 1 W input, 8 Ω resistance, SPL measurement 1m from speaker, i.e. 86 dB W-1 Distortion: tends to be 2nd-harmonic distortion - producing frequencies octave higher. At lower freq ≈ 10%, mid-high freq ≈ 1% Usually not perceptually relevant ✚ = Performance Measurements, pt. 3 Frequency Response Ideally: 20 Hz to 20 kHz, flat response Typical systems experience bass roll-off around 100 Hz A good system may have only ±3 dB fluctuation in the rest of the spectrum Power Handling: # watts speaker can handle before unacceptable distortion Speaker rated at 30 W, sensitivity of 86 dB W-1 10 log(30 W/1 W) = 15 dB, 86 dB + 15 dB =101 dB SPL (1 m from speaker) Directivity: angle of coverage of loudspeaker output As waveforms increase in frequency, they become smaller relative to the speaker and enclosure size Harder to diffract around the back of the enclosure ➔ foward-directional Increase in off-axis phase cancellation ➔ narrower spread Increasing forwarddirectionality Decreasing spread References Francis Rumsey and Tim McCormick (2002). “Sound and Recording: An Introduction”, Focal Press. Chapter 4: Loudspeakers Images and diagrams from: Francis Rumsey and Tim McCormick (2002). “Sound and Recording: An Introduction”, Focal Press. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/audio/spk.html http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/speaker.htm http://www.mcsquared.com/speakers1.htm ...
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