5_mixers

5_mixers - M i x e rs Juan P Bello Mixers A mixer...

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Mixers Juan P Bello
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Mixers • A mixer combines (sums) several individual signals into a single output signal (that can be multi-channel) • Mixers have many functionalities such as the control of the level and position in the stereo image for each individual signal, their equalization and filtering, grouping, routing to a recording device or effect processor, etc. • They also serve as a source for phantom power for condenser mics.
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Mixer diagram
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Input connections Input connectors are usually located at the back panel, although in small mixers they can also be located at the top of the front panel Inputs commonly use XLR connectors and a balanced configuration but unbalanced inputs using 1/4 inch jack connectors can also be found for line inputs (less susceptible to noise, interference and long distance) Connection conventions: pins point in the direction of the signal Switch(es) to phantom power
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Input section • Mic/Line switch: switches between inputs • Input gain/trim: sets the level of amplification of the input amplifier • For mic inputs high levels of amplification are available (e.g. 0 to 60 dB), for line inputs levels of attenuation/amplification either side of unity gain (0 dB) are available (e.g. -45dB - 15dB) • Pad button: activates a network of resistors that attenuate high- gain inputs (e.g. from condenser mics or loud environments) to avoid clipping. The level of attenuation is fixed (e.g. 20dB) • Phase reversal: to compensate fore reversed phase from, e.g., a reversed directional mic. • Basic filtering: low or high-pass filters with fixed parameters (filter out unwanted rumble, hum or hiss)
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EQ (1) • The Equalization (EQ) section provides tone control and is usually split into 3/4 sub-sections each operating at a different frequency band • Sections correspond to high (HF), hi-mid (1k-10kHz), low-mid (200-2kHz) and low (LF) frequency bands • In simple EQ we only control cut/boost values (in dB). Frequencies are fixed (or simply switchable) • In parametric EQ we can control frequency variations (within a range), cut/boost, and Q values (Only sections with Q control can be deemed parametric).
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EQ (2) • High and low-frequency band EQ is usually implemented through shelving filters with fixed cut-off frequency • Shelving filters slowly boost or attenuate the frequency response towards an area of constant level (a shelf)
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EQ (3) • In mid bands, bell-shaped band-pass filters are commonly used • Boost/cut controls the amplitude of the bell, while a “swept-mid” control is used to select a desired center frequency (Fc) • Bandwidth (BW) is the Hertz difference between the points where the filter response decreases 3dB from its maximum at Fc.
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5_mixers - M i x e rs Juan P Bello Mixers A mixer...

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