Chapter 04 - The Von Neumann Model

Chapter 04 - The Von Neumann Model - Chapter 4 The Von...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 The Von Neumann Model BYU CS/ECEn 124 Chapter 4 - The Von Neumann Model 2 Topics to Cover… Von Neumann vs. Harvard MSP430 Architecture RISC / CISC Anatomy of an Instruction MSP430 Instructions Instruction Cycles Clocks MSP430 Finite State Machine BYU CS/ECEn 124 Chapter 4 - The Von Neumann Model 3 Forecasting Computer Technology “I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.” Thomas Watson, IBM Chairman, 1943 “Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons.” Popular Mechanics, 1949 “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.” Ken Olsen, DEC founder, 1977 “DOS addresses only 1 MB of RAM because we cannot imagine any applications needing more.” Microsoft, 1980 “The 32-bit machine would be an overkill for a personal computer.” Sol Libes, ByteLines, 1981 “640K ought to be enough for anybody.” Bill Gates, 1981 BYU CS/ECEn 124 Chapter 4 - The Von Neumann Model 4 Harvard Architecture Harvard DATA MEMORY INSTRUCTION MEMORY CLOCK IN OUT Control Status Instruction Control & Address Data ALU CONTROL The Harvard architecture is a computer architecture with physically separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data. BYU CS/ECEn 124 Chapter 4 - The Von Neumann Model 5 OUTPUT * monitor * printer * LEDs * D/A * disk INPUT * keyboard * mouse * scanner * A/D * serial * disk PROCESSING UNIT The Von Neumann Computer Program Counter Instruction Register MEMORY ALU Registers Control Datapath Von Neumann proposed this model in 1946 The Von Neumann model : Program instructions and Data are both stored as sequences of bits in computer memory Address Bus Data Bus Von Neumann Clock Control Logic BYU CS/ECEn 124 Chapter 4 - The Von Neumann Model 6 MSP430 Architecture Memory Data Bus (bi-directional) Addressability = number of bits stored in each memory location Memory Select (MSEL) connects an addressed memory location to the data bus Memory Write Enable (MWE) is the control signal that is asserted when writing to memory Von Neumann Memory Address Bus (uni-directional) Address Space = number of possible memory locations (also called the memory size) Memory Address Register (MAR) stores the memory address for the address bus (address space) Addresses peripherals as well as memory BYU CS/ECEn 124 Chapter 4 - The Von Neumann Model 7 MSP430 Architecture Sixteen 16-bit registers Program Counter (R0), Stack Pointer (R1), Status Register (R2) Constant Generator (R3), General Purpose Registers (R4-R15) Very fast memory - close to the ALU (register file). Von Neumann ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit) performs the arithmetic and logical operations Arithmetic operations: add, subtract Logical operations: and, xor, bit Sets condition codes The word length of a computer is the number of bits processed by the ALU. BYU CS/ECEn 124 Chapter 4 - The Von Neumann Model 8 MSP430 Architecture Clock System and peripheral clocks...
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Chapter 04 - The Von Neumann Model - Chapter 4 The Von...

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