Chapter 6 - Chapter 6: Perception & Individual Decision...

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Chapter 6: Perception & Individual Decision Making A. The Definition of Perception Defined as the process through which people organize, interpret, and use available information to form impressions about other people and environment People’s responses to others are based on their perceptions of what reality is, not on reality itself B. Determinant of individual perception C. How do people make judgments about others? When people observe the results of accidents or other’ behaviors, people tend to explain why those happen or why they behave in that way Attribution Theory explains the ways in which people judge the causes of others’ behaviors, depending on whether a given behavior is internally or externally caused - Internal causes are under the control of the person who behave - External causes are not under the person’s control (i.e. situations, other influences etc) The attribution is determined through considering three factors - Distinctiveness whether the individual shows different behaviors in different situations - Consensus Whether the individual’s response is the same as others to the same situation - Consistency whether the individual responds in the same way over time An example of attribution theory • In the example that Bob did have “C” in OB&WORK 2010 fall, is the outcome due to Bob’s internal causes (e.g., ability, motivation, personality, etc.) or his external causes (e.g. instructor, classmates, etc.)?
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• When we found out: - Bob did have poor grades in other courses ( LOW DISTINCTIVENESS INTERNAL CAUSE ) - The majority of students did have more than C ( LOW CONCENSUS INTERNAL CAUSE ) ( HIGH CONSISTENCY INTERNAL CAUSE ) They distort attributions FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR Tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of OTHERS SELF-SERVING BIAS the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors E. Common shortcuts in judging SELECTIVE PERCEPTION people selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes - Once someone is categorized as a high performer, we focus more on information related to the high performance and disregard other negative information HALO EFFECT drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single (typically good) characteristic - people tend to associate the single positive trait with other positive traits CONTRAST EFFECTS
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This note was uploaded on 03/05/2012 for the course ORGANIZATI 345 taught by Professor Andreakim during the Spring '12 term at Rutgers.

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Chapter 6 - Chapter 6: Perception & Individual Decision...

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