Chapter 7 - Chapter 7: Motivation Concepts A. What is...

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Chapter 7: Motivation Concepts A. What is motivation? MOTIVATION represents the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal - The force that makes people do things - The single most important question in the field of management • The three key elements - INTENSITY : How hard a person tries - DIRECTION : Effort that is channeled toward, and consistent with, organizational goals - PERSISTENCE : How long a person can maintain effort B. Early theories of motivation: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory • There is a HIERARCH of five needs Higher-order needs ex) Growth, self-fulfillment Satisfied internally ex) Self-respect, autonomy, status ex) Affection, acceptance, friendship ex) Protection from harm ex) Hunger, thirst,   other bodily needs Lower-order needs Satisfied externally • As each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant - Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied - Must move in hierarchical order C. Early theories of motivation: McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y • Managers’ two distinct views of human beings: Theory X (basically negative) and Theory Y (positive) - Managers used a set of assumptions based on their view - The assumptions molded their behavior toward employees • Managers’ behaviors of motivating employees depend on their views of human beings • No empirical evidence to support this theory D. Early theories of motivation: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory • Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but separate constructs
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• There are considerable limitations in the methodology: Self-serving bias, reliability and validity of the measures for satisfaction E. Early theories of motivation: McClelland’s Theory of Needs • The following three needs determine motivation - NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT (nAch): The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed - NEED FOR POWER
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This note was uploaded on 03/05/2012 for the course ORGANIZATI 345 taught by Professor Andreakim during the Spring '12 term at Rutgers.

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Chapter 7 - Chapter 7: Motivation Concepts A. What is...

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