chapter10 RKW

chapter10 RKW - Lecture Connections 10 | Lipids © 2009 W....

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture Connections 10 | Lipids © 2009 W. H. Freeman and Company CHAPTER 10 Lipids – Biological roles of lipids – Structure and properties of storage lipids – Structure and properties of membrane lipids – Structure and properties of signaling lipids Key topics : Lipids: Structurally Diverse Class • Low solubility in water • Good solubility in nonpolar solvents Biological Functions of Lipids • Storage of energy – Reduced compounds: lots of available energy – Hydrophobic nature: good packing • Insulation from environment – Low thermal conductivity – High heat capacity (can “absorb” heat) – Mechanical protection (can absorb shocks) • Water repellant – Hydrophobic nature: keeps surface of the organism dry • Prevents excessive wetting (birds) • Prevents loss of water via evaporation • Buoyancy control and acoustics in marine mammals – Increased density while diving deep helps sinking More Functions • Membrane Structure – Main structure of cell membranes • Cofactors for enzymes – Vitamin K: blood clot formation – Coenzyme Q: ATP synthesis in mitochondria • Signaling molecules – Paracrine hormones (act locally) – Steroid hormones (act body-wide) – Growth factors – Vitamins A and D (hormone precursors) • Pigments – Color of tomatoes, carrots, pumpkins, some birds • Antioxidants – Vitamin E Classification of Lipids • Based on the structure and function • Lipids that do not contain fatty acids: cholesterol, terpenes, … • Lipids that contain fatty acids (complex lipids) – Storage lipids and membrane lipids Most common energy lipids • Oils and waxes. • Usually in form of fatty acids • Carboxylic acid with 4-36 C chain. Nomenclature • List number of C atoms and number of double bonds separated by colon. • Example 18:1 or 20:5 • Carboxyl carbon is numbered #1 • Carbon next to carboxyl carbon (C-2) is called - α C. • Double bonds listed as C closest to C-1 • Δ 6 where the double bond would be between C-6 and C-7 Fatty Acids continued… • Carboxylic acids 4-36 C long • Most are 12-24 C chains • Most even # of C atoms • Synthesized in 2 C units. • Most natural fatty acids are unbranched • Saturated: no double bonds between carbons in the chain • Monounsaturated : one double bond between carbons in the alkyl chain • Polyunsaturated : more than one double bond in the alkyl chain Fatty Acids • Most common saturation Δ 9 , Δ 12 or Δ 15 . • Almost never conjugated -CH=CH- CH 2-CH=CH- Almost all in cis configuration. Trans comes from dairy or meat. ω-Fatty Acids •-fatty acids are important to health. ω • An alternative convention for naming has been devised....
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2012 for the course CHEM 481 taught by Professor Wood during the Fall '10 term at BYU.

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chapter10 RKW - Lecture Connections 10 | Lipids © 2009 W....

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