chapter13 RKW

chapter13 RKW - Lecture Connections 13 | Bioenergetics and...

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Lecture Connections 13 | Bioenergetics and Reactions © 2009 W. H. Freeman and Company
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CHAPTER 13 Bioenergetics and Reactions Thermodynamics applies to biochemistry, too Organic chemistry principles are still valid Some biomolecules are “high energy” with respect to their hydrolysis and group transfers This means they are unstable and are exergonic when they break down. Energy stored in reduced organic compounds can be used to reduce cofactors such as NAD + and FAD, which serve as universal electron carriers Key topics :
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Life Needs Energy Recall that living organisms are built of complex structures Building complex structures that are low in entropy is only possible when energy is spent in the process The ultimate source of this energy on Earth is the sunlight
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Metabolism Is the Sum of All Chemical Reactions in the Cell Series of related reactions form metabolic pathways Some pathways are primarily energy-producing this is catabolism Some pathways are primarily using energy to build complex structures this is anabolism or biosynthesis
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Laws of Thermodynamics Apply to Living Organisms Living organisms cannot create energy from nothing Living organisms cannot destroy energy into nothing Living organism may transform energy from one form to another In the process of transforming energy, living organisms must increase the entropy of the universe In order to maintain organization within the themselves, living systems must be able to extract useable energy from the surrounding, and release useless energy (heat) back to the surrounding
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Free Energy, or the Equilibrium Constant Measure the Direction of Spontaneous Processes
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Hydrolysis Reactions tend to be Strongly Favorable (Spontaneous)
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Isomerization Reactions Have Smaller Free Energy Changes Isomerization between enantiomers: G ° = 0
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Complete Oxidation of Reduced Compounds is Strongly Favorable This is how chemotrophs obtain most of their energy In biochemistry the oxidation of reduced fuels with O 2 is stepwise and controlled Recall that being thermodynamically favorable is not the same as being kinetically rapid
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ΔG, ΔH, ΔS Equilibrium expressions Etc. Work Example 3.1
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2012 for the course CHEM 481 taught by Professor Wood during the Fall '10 term at BYU.

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chapter13 RKW - Lecture Connections 13 | Bioenergetics and...

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