chapter21 - Lecture Connections 21 | Lipid Biosynthesis...

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Lecture Connections 21 | Lipid Biosynthesis © 2009 W. H. Freeman and Company
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CHAPTER 21 Lipid Biosynthesis Biosynthesis of fatty acids and eicosanoids Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols Biosynthesis of fatty cholesterol Key topics :
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Eicosanoids E icosanoids are signaling molecules made by oxidation of twenty-carbon essential fatty acids, (EFAs). Act as messengers in inflammation or immunity, The networks of controls that depend upon eicosanoids are among the most complex in the human body.
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Lipids Fulfill a Variety of Biological Functions Storage of energy Constituents of cellular membranes Anchors for membrane proteins Cofactors for enzymes Signaling molecules Pigments Detergents Transporters Antioxidants
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Catabolism and Anabolism of Fatty Acids Proceed via Different Pathways Catabolism of fatty acids produced acetyl-CoA reducing power to NADH location: mitochondria Anabolism of fatty acids requires malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA reducing power from NADPH location: cytosol in animals, chloroplast in plants
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Overview of Fatty Acid Synthesis Fatty acids are built in several passes processing one acetate unit at a time The acetate is coming from activated malonate in the form of malonyl-CoA In each pass involves reduction of a carbonyl carbon to a methylene carbon
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Make Malonyl-CoA Starting material acetyl CoA. Choose a cofactor Choose an amino acid residue to attach the cofactor. Choose the source of C to add the new C to acetyl CoA.
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Acetyl CoA carboxylase Pyruvate carboxylase – gluconeogenesis Propionyl-CoA carboxylase – 3 carbon fatty acid degradation
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ATP hydrolyzed in Reaction
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Synthesis of Malonyl-CoA (1) The three-carbon precursor for fatty acid
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