Psych Study Guide 4 - PsychStudyGuide#3 00:56...

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Psych Study Guide #3 00:56  Personality: characteristics, emotions, thoughts behaviors that are relative stable  over time and across circumstances what makes you who you are? What makes you unique? What is the same  over time? How we manage emotions, behavior, situation, and adventure Personality traits: characteristics of the person, a dispositional tendency to act in a  certain way over time Relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way  Introversion vs. extraversion  Introversion: high stress, depression, neuroticism, prone to more negative emotions Extraversion: not quickly overwhelmed by stimulus- seeking more stimuli, more prone to  do drugs, rock climb, sky dive  How have scientists studied personality Psychodynamic theories emphasize unconscious and dynamic processes-  dynamic relationships w/ other people Humanistic approaches emphasize integrated personal experience o Unconditional positive regard- “you’re good enough”- trying to  understand how person is finding meaning in life Social cognitive approach: how people think about situations, but also how they would  respond in those situations Type and trait approach describes behavioral dispositions: categorize people in different  ways The Freudian or “Psychodynamic” approach The role of unconscious influences on personality (life is un consciously  driven) Id= unconscious, pleasure center o Born w/ it, have to restrain it (devil- childish impulses) Superego= dictates from society, parents Doesn’t accept desire to meet Id desire (angel- or parent)
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Sexual interest in opposite parent- need to control Id Ego= mediates between Id and Superego Sense of self, how we want to operate Introduces concept of unconscious defense mechanisms Defense mechanisms: feel okay in time of struggle Almost everything is unconscious- some things are preconscious or conscious (Freud’s  topographical model) Therapist can suggest unconscious feeling, and bring it to preconscious or  subconscious “Penis Envy Theory”- “the female acknowledges the fact of her castration and w/ it  too the superiority of the male and her own inferiority, but she rebels against this  unwelcome state of affairs” –Freud decided that woman had penis envy-phallic symbols=monument to penis Common Defense Mechanisms Denial: refusing to acknowledge source of anxiety (ignore, pretend it doesn’t  exist) o EX:ill person ignores medical advice Repression: excluding source of anxiety from awareness EX: person fails to remember an unpleasant event
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