FINALpsychstudyguide1 - Georgia Tollin and Meg Rappeport...

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Georgia Tollin and Meg Rappeport Psych Test Study Guide #1 I. Course Introduction: -The epistemological question: how do we know what we know? 1) We know something when we can explain it: -Nomothetic Explanation: useful for physical events •We being a particular instance or event under a covering law •Ex: The cup dropped because of gravity -Idiographic Explanation: useful for human behavior, purposes, or motives •We account for an individual’s action by referring to reasons, emotions, or goals •Ex: He dropped the cup because he was nervous/wanted to make a point 2) We know something when we can observe it: -But there’s no such thing as “raw” data/observation •Pure observation is already interpretation -Our perceptions are shaped by how we make meaning and by our “weltanschauung” (worldview) -We can’t pay attention to everything at once 3) We know something when we can describe it: -Labels and or concepts are invaluable: they allow us to communicate with each other in a kind of shorthand by organizing, but also by eliminating certain info -Concepts can create problems such as: 1) Nominal Fallacy: using one world in place of another, and mistakenly believing you’ve added information (doesn’t explain the original word) 2) Reification: confusing a concept with something in reality 3) Functional Fixity: a label renders something inflexible -Ex: video tape, not paper weight •Theories : help us pay attention to certain things and not to others 1) Psychodynamic Theory : helps us pay attention to feelings 2) Cognitive Theory: emphasizes thoughts 3) Learning Theory: has us focus on environmental rewards and punishments 4) Humanistic Theory: explores autonomy and meaning, and ways in which meaning can be restored 5) Family Systems Theory: oriented around relationships and “locking” each other into place
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4) We know something when we can interact with it: -Martin Buber distinguished between: •I-It Relationships : relate to something as an object/category -Subject-Object -We observe and appraise •I-Thou Relationships : relate to someone in the present moment as fully human -Subject-Subject -We experience and appreciate I-IT I-Thou Subject-Object Subject to Subject Observe Experience Evaluate Appreciate Theories Stories Time-Limited Timeless (present) *Knowing about *Knowing II. Normal and Abnormal Behavior: •Abnormality: 1. Deviation from the “average” 2. Deviation from the ideal 3. Inability to function effectively 4. Lack of a sense of well-being •Rosenhann Study: problems of classifying abnormal behavior -Students faked symptoms of hearing voices, were diagnosed and put in a mental institution, but weren’t released once they were labeled and tried to declare that they were sane • Perspectives on Abnormality : -Medical -Psychoanalytic -Cognitive: stuck in beliefs -Humanistic: meaning -Sociocultural (ex: eating disorders) -Behavioral (ex: learned helplessness) •Diagnosing Abnormal Behavior: -DSM IV: avoids suggestions about causes, but provides extensive descriptions
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2012 for the course PSYCH 202 taught by Professor Roberts during the Fall '06 term at University of Wisconsin.

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FINALpsychstudyguide1 - Georgia Tollin and Meg Rappeport...

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