Chapter 2-Methodology

Chapter 2-Methodology - Chapter 2-Methodology Tuesday 2:59...

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Chapter 2-Methodology Tuesday, February 15, 2011 2:59 PM 1. Social Psychology: An Empirical Science 1.a. Many social problems can be studied scientifically 1.b. Social psychology concerns topics with which we are all intimately familiar- >results may appear to have been predictable 1.a.i. Hindsight bias: people exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing that it occurred 1.a.ii. Scientific discipline with a well-developed set of methods to answer questions about social behavior 1.a.i.1. Observational method 1.a.i.1. Correlational method 1.a.i.1. Experimental method 1. Formulating Hypotheses and Theories 1.a. Many studies stem from a researcher's dissatisfaction with existing theories and explanations 1.a.i. Leon Festinger: formulated the dissonance theory because he was dissatisfied with the ability of the behaviorism theory to explain why people change their attitude 1.a.i.1. Dissonance theory: made specific predictions about when and how people would change their attitudes 1.a.i. Engage in a continual process of theory refinement 1.a. Kitty Genovese murder 1.a.i. Bibb Latane and John Darley 1.a.i.1. Diffusion of responsibility: assumed someone else called the police 1.a.i.2. Bystanders would have been more likely to help had each thought he or she along was witnessing the murder 1. Observational Method: Describing Social Behavior 1.a. Helpful if goal is to describe what a particular group of people or type of behavior is like 1.b. A researcher observes people and records measurements or impressions of their behavior 1.c. Ethnography: method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside, without imposing any preconceived notions they might have 1.a.i. Goal is to understand the richness and complexity of the group by observing it in action 1.a.ii. Avoid imposing one's preconceived notions in order to understand the point of view of the people being studied 1.a. Sometimes observer systematically looks for particular behaviors that are concretely defined before the observation begins 1.b. Interjudge reliability: the level of agreement between two or more people who
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Chapter 2-Methodology - Chapter 2-Methodology Tuesday 2:59...

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