Chapter 9 Group Processes

Chapter 9 Group Processes - Chapter 9: Group Processes...

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Chapter 9: Group Processes Thursday, May 05, 2011 8:04 PM 1. What is a Group? 1.a. Group: three or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other 1.b. Why do people join groups? 1.a.i. The need to belong has become innate and is present in all societies 1.a.ii. Groups help establish social norms, the explicit or implicit rules defining what is acceptable behavior 1.a. The composition and functions of groups 1.a.i. If groups become too large, you cannot interact with all the members 1.a.ii. Members tend to be alike in age, sex, beliefs, and opinions 1.a.iii. Two reasons for homogeneity: 1.a.i.1. Many groups tend to attract people who are already similar before they join 1.a.i.1. Groups tend to operate in ways that encourage similarity in the members 1.a.i. Social norms 1.a.ii. Social roles: shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave 1.a.iii. Prison abuse at Abu Ghraib 1.a.iv. Gender roles 1.a.i.1. Changing roles do more than cause us conflict, they can actually affect our personalities 1.a.i. Group cohesiveness: qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking between members 1.a.i.1. The more cohesive a group is, the more its members are likely to stay in the group, take part in group activities, and try to recruit new like- minded members 1.a.i.1. Sometimes cohesiveness can get in the way of optimal performance, if maintaining good relations among group members becomes more important that finding good solutions to a problem 1. Groups and Individuals' Behavior 1.a. Social facilitation: when the presence of others energizes us 1.a.i. Presence of others can mean one of two things: 1.a.i.1. Performing a task with coworkers who are doing the same thing you are 1.a.i.1. Performing a task in front of an audience that is not doing anything but observing you 1.a.i. As long as the task is a relatively simple, well-learned one the mere presence of others improves performance 1.a.i. Simple versus difficult tasks 1.a.i.1. People do worse in the presence of others when the task is difficult 1.a.i. Arousal and the dominant response 1.a.i.1. Presence of others increases physiological arousal
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1.a.i.1.a. When such arousal exists, it is easier to perform a dominant response (something you're good at) but harder to do something complex or learn something new 1.a.i.1. Social facilitation: the tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated 1.a.i. Why the presence of others causes arousal 1.a.i.1. Researchers have developed three theories: 1.a.i.1.a. Other people cause us to become particularly alert and vigilant 1.a.i.1.a. Make us apprehensive about how we're being evaluated 1.a.i.1.a.i. Evaluation apprehension 1.a.i.1.a. The distract us from the task at hand 1.a. Social loafing: when the presence of others relaxes us
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Chapter 9 Group Processes - Chapter 9: Group Processes...

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