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Poly Sci 104 Final Exam Study Guide  -go through book -go through reader -compare to others  The Policy Process     (here, pay attention to  changes  in the role that government institutions and other  organizations play  –parties, media, interest groups  – as elaborated upon in the  relevant chapters in the textbook) Policy analysis Which policy will get you there fastest/cheapest/most efficiently? Cost benefit analysis Way to evaluate policy is to compare costs of a policy against the benefits Root vs. Branch o Root- best policy is starting from scratch o Branch- incrementally change what you have (typical) Example: Flu shots  o little cost, large benefit Example: Seat Belts and school buses  o no brainer? But school buses surprisingly safe, high costs (adding seat  belts, more buses) Why democracies muddle through More complex policy/complicated issues o Disagreement and uncertainty about goals o Uncertainty about tools and methods
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o Disagreement over distribution of costs Options: o Comprehensive assessment of all goals, tools, outcomes, and possible  strategies (obviously not feasible) o Muddling through  Example: Global warming  o  consensus that global climate is warming o But there are questions, important to get solution right, what level of  certainty do you need before you act? Bureaucracy and the executive branch     Structure and function of executive branch agencies Administering executive policies: o Division of labor o Implement government policy o Promote public good o Protect nation o Sustain a strong economy o Make and enforce rules o Settle disputes Different types of agencies and characteristics thereof Types of agencies: o Clientele- mission is to promote, serve, and represent a specific  interest
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o Regulatory- a department of bureaucracy of independent agencies  who want to eliminate negative behaviors o Revenue- manages the sources of government revenue Characteristics of bureaucracies Help execution/implementation of policy o Requires specific organizational capabilities Identification of specific tasks needed to carry out policy Management and organization Assessment o Bureaucracies an efficient way to organize this implementation Specific organizational type with identifiable characterisitics  o Example: Health Care  Goal: deliver high quality health care at an affordable cost Problem: what health care services? How much? Who decides?  What is affordable? How do you measure outcomes? Who pays 
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