Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive Psychology - 1/30 The brain = 10^11-controversial...

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1/30 The brain = 10^11 -controversial, not certain Synapse: connection from one neuron to another [brain]: Parietal (attention), Frontal (executive function, decision making), Occipital (vision), Temporal Lobe (audition etc) -frontal: higher cognition, future planning -parietal: “sensory homunculus”, “motor homunculus” -4 lobes one each side, 8 in total -brainstem: important for being a live -corpus callosum: thick band of axons, connects hemispheres -sensory strip: map of senses Cortex=”rind” -was that was only superficial Localization of function -different parts of the brain do different things -First famous example: Broca’s area (about 1860) -Broca’s patients with left hemisphere damage in a particular place lost the power of speech -First clear evidence that “higher thought” was localized in the cortex A split brain patient -Left hemisphere sees the right visual hemifield How specific does localization of function get? Do individual neurons have specific functions? “Grandmother cells” [The case of the Jennifer Aniston Method of subtraction -BOLD in experimental task 2/2 A split brain patient -Left hemisphere sees the right visual hemifield and controls the right arm -Right hemisphere sees the left visual hemifield and controls the left arm -image: boy sees a dot in the middle of a screen with two different images, the left image is portrayed in the right side of his brain and he chooses a related image with his right finger Sperry: Split-rain patients -After the corpus callosum is cut, the two hemisphere are mostly independent, like two brains in one head -Contralteral: opposite side -Ipsilateral: same side
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-Neuroimaging – brain scans -PET – positron emission tomography -fMRI – function magnetic resonance imaging -both read: BOLD signal = blood oxygen level dependent; see where the blood is going ~a lot of these are controversial. Some argue that these are very expensive ways of finding things we already know ~simple ways of finding where the brain is active. Method of subtraction BOLD in experimental task - BOLD in control task = BOLD due only to critical aspect of task ~the subtraction idea is that you’re always going to have two tasks: the experimental and the ~For example, you show a word on the screen and you want to know where words process in your brain. So you have two groups and tell one group to think about the meaning of the word. The other group looks at the word and are asked something else like how many syllables are there. The point is, it is the same visual, same experience but one group has to think about the meaning. Scientists then subtract. When you subtract you see just a few brain areas light up and those areas show which brain areas have to do with the first group. ~Localization or which areas do what have been found out this way
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course 830 201 taught by Professor Leyton during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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Cognitive Psychology - 1/30 The brain = 10^11-controversial...

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