This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Pathophysiology Lecture 1 Cellular Attractions Pathophysiology: the study of the underlying changes in body physiology that result from disease or injury Common terms used in describing disease: Diagnosis: name attached to the disease Etiology: why the person formed the disease; cause of the disease ◦ Idiopathic: when people aren't sure why the disease occurred or no identifiable cause of the disease ◦ Iatrogenic: disease occurred as a result from the treatment given to a patient (Example: polycatheter that's used for urinary damage?) ◦ Nosocomial: acquired during a hospital stay (Ex. C. diff diarrhea is sometimes spread in hospitals by workers to workers, rooms etc) Prognosis: expected outcome of the patient Exacerbation: symptoms get worse Remission: symptoms go away Clinical manifestations: ◦ Signs: an objective change (blood pressure can change, urine output can change etc.) ◦ Symptoms: what a patient reports to you or tells you (headache, nauseous; you have to tell what the symptoms are, they won't know by measuring you) Risk factors: increases the probability of the disease occurring Cellular Adaptation Escape and protect from injury Occurs in response to normal physiologic conditions or adverse/pathologic conditions Early stages, cells have enhanced response Adaptive changes: ◦ Atrophy: shrinkage or decrease in cel size ▪ physiologic is normal but pathologic is abnormal (disuse atrophy) ▪ Cell changes in atrophy: decreased mitochondria less endoplasmic reticulum fewer myofilaments ▪ Doesn't mean that the number of cells is less, it's when the sizes of cells are smaller ▪ Less mitochondria so there is less ATP ◦ Hypertrophy: cell is larger than normal ▪ Increase in cell size → increased organ size ▪ physiologic or pathologic ▪ Triggers: mechanical signals (stretch) Trophic changes (growth factors, hormones, vasoactive agents) ▪ Cell changes: increased protein in cell components not in the cell fluid ▪ Examples of hypertrophy: somebody who lifts weights. If you have hypertension in the heart, you may have a larger ventricle. ◦ Hyperplasia: more than a normal amount of cells ▪ Increase in the number of cells due to increase in the rate of cell division ▪ Compensatory: adaptive and allows for organ regeneration ▪ Hormonal: estrogen dependent organs ▪ Pathologic: abnormal proliferation of normal cells, in response to an increase in hormonal or growth factors ▪ Example of pathologic: in the uterus ▪ Cells can change themselves into malignancies if there are a lot of cells ◦ Metaplasia: ▪ reversible replacement of one mature cell by another less differentiated cell ▪ thought to develop from a reprogramming of stem cels ▪ lungs → normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchial lining replaced with stratified squamous epithelial cells ▪ This is because of something that the patient did, cells that are normally functionining...
View Full Document
- Fall '08
- cells, Wound infection