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Unformatted text preview: Pathophysiology Lecture 1 Cellular Attractions Pathophysiology: the study of the underlying changes in body physiology that result from disease or injury Common terms used in describing disease: Diagnosis: name attached to the disease Etiology: why the person formed the disease; cause of the disease Idiopathic: when people aren't sure why the disease occurred or no identifiable cause of the disease Iatrogenic: disease occurred as a result from the treatment given to a patient (Example: polycatheter that's used for urinary damage?) Nosocomial: acquired during a hospital stay (Ex. C. diff diarrhea is sometimes spread in hospitals by workers to workers, rooms etc) Prognosis: expected outcome of the patient Exacerbation: symptoms get worse Remission: symptoms go away Clinical manifestations: Signs: an objective change (blood pressure can change, urine output can change etc.) Symptoms: what a patient reports to you or tells you (headache, nauseous; you have to tell what the symptoms are, they won't know by measuring you) Risk factors: increases the probability of the disease occurring Cellular Adaptation Escape and protect from injury Occurs in response to normal physiologic conditions or adverse/pathologic conditions Early stages, cells have enhanced response Adaptive changes: Atrophy: shrinkage or decrease in cel size physiologic is normal but pathologic is abnormal (disuse atrophy) Cell changes in atrophy: decreased mitochondria less endoplasmic reticulum fewer myofilaments Doesn't mean that the number of cells is less, it's when the sizes of cells are smaller Less mitochondria so there is less ATP Hypertrophy: cell is larger than normal Increase in cell size increased organ size physiologic or pathologic Triggers: mechanical signals (stretch) Trophic changes (growth factors, hormones, vasoactive agents) Cell changes: increased protein in cell components not in the cell fluid Examples of hypertrophy: somebody who lifts weights. If you have hypertension in the heart, you may have a larger ventricle. Hyperplasia: more than a normal amount of cells Increase in the number of cells due to increase in the rate of cell division Compensatory: adaptive and allows for organ regeneration Hormonal: estrogen dependent organs Pathologic: abnormal proliferation of normal cells, in response to an increase in hormonal or growth factors Example of pathologic: in the uterus Cells can change themselves into malignancies if there are a lot of cells Metaplasia: reversible replacement of one mature cell by another less differentiated cell thought to develop from a reprogramming of stem cels lungs normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchial lining replaced with stratified squamous epithelial cells This is because of something that the patient did, cells that are normally functionining...
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course 830 201 taught by Professor Leyton during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.
- Fall '08