final - Lecture 1 Cellular Biology Most have one...

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Lecture 1: Cellular Biology Most have one nucleus -Large cells are multinucleate -RBC: no nucleus Perinuclear cisterna: -fluid between membrane of nucleus Nucleoli: -assembles ribosome subunits -no membrane -large in growing cells -near chromatin region (DNA coding for rRNA) Chromatin: -DNA(-) + globular histone (H1: +) -composed of nucleosomes: -units of 8 histones wrapped by DNA Cytoplasm: -most cell activities -inclusions: non-functioning chemical substances specific to cell type Ribosomes: protein + RNA -protein synthesis -free ribosomes make proteins to function in cytosol -ER ribosomes make proteins to be exported on integrated into plasma membrane Mitochondria: energy -> cellular work -double membrane (like plasma mebrane) -outer: permeable to small solutes -inner: embedded proteins -cristae: inner folds -intermembrane space; middle -mitochondrial matrix; has enzymes for metabolic steps for cellular respiration Plastids: -amyloplasts; starch storage in roots -chromoplasts; pigment other than chlorophyll -chloroplasts; site of photosynthesis (mesophyll cells) -intermembrane space; space between double membrane of chloroplasts -thylakoid space; embedded in stroma, light rxns occur (light -> chemical energy) -stroma; dark rxns occur (use chemical energy to CO 2 ->sugar) Peroxisomes: -single membrane -similar to lysosomes except are oxidative in function -metabolic pathways that require peroxide-producing oxidases (enzymes involved in oxidation/reduction rxns -breaks down fatty acids, detoxifies alcohol and other harmful compounds 1
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-byproduct: hydrogen peroxide which is converted to water by catalase Cytoskeleton: support, movement, regulation -mechanical support for shape -cell can change shape when environment changes -motility; has motor molecules -regulatory roles; transmits signals from outside to inside -3 fibers: 1. microtubules (thickest) -radiates from center -determines cell shape -‘railroad tracks’ for organelle movement -involved in separation of chromosomes during cell division -forms centrosomes, centrioles, cilia, flagella 2. microfilaments (thinnest) -made of contractile protein; actin -muscle or localized cell contraction -attaches to cytoplasm side of plasma membrane 3. intermediate filaments (most stable + permanent) -fix organelle position Endomembrane Systems: 1.nuclear envelope 2.endoplasmic reticulum 3.golgi apparatus 4.lysosomes 5.vacuoles -interaction: direct (physical contact) or by vesicles 1. Nuclear Envelope: -double membrane -nuclear pores -outer membrane continuous with ER 2. ER: -network of tubules + sacs (cisternae) -2 regions: smooth/rough -smooth: -no ribosomes -makes lipids, phospholipids, steroids -carbohydrate metabolism -detoxifies drugs -calcium storage -rough -has ribosomes (secretory protein synthesis) -production does not necessarily make proteins functional -growing polypeptide threads through ER membrane (receptor site) into cisternae 2
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-proteins folds into native conformation -if meant to be glycoprotein, oligosaccharides are added -ER pinches off proteins in transport vesicles
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course 830 201 taught by Professor Leyton during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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final - Lecture 1 Cellular Biology Most have one...

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