Lecture 1 - Cellular Attractions

Lecture 1 - Cellular Attractions - Cellular Alterations...

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Cellular Alterations Cellular Alterations
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Objectives Objectives Define pathophysiology and related terms Describe the processes that occur in cellular adaptation, cellular injury and the cellular manifestations of injury Describe cellular death Describe the effects of aging on cellular function Describe somatic death
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What is Pathophysiology? What is Pathophysiology? Study of the underlying changes in body physiology that result from disease or injury.
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Common terms used in describing Common terms used in describing Disease/Illness/ Injury Disease/Illness/ Injury Diagnosis Etiology Idiopathic Iatrogenic Nosocomial Prognosis Exacerbation vs. remission Clinical Manifestations Signs Symptoms Risk factors
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Cellular Adaptation Cellular Adaptation Escape and protect from injury Occurs in response to normal physiologic conditions or adverse/pathologic conditions Early stages, cells have enhanced response… is this normal or abnormal?
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Adaptive Changes Adaptive Changes Atrophy Hypertrophy Hyperplasia Metaplasia Dysplasia
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Atrophy Atrophy Shrinkage or decrease in cell size Physiologic (normal) Pathologic (abnormal) Disuse atrophy Cell Changes in Atrophy Decreased mitochondria Less endoplasmic reticulum Fewer myofilaments
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Hypertrophy Hypertrophy Increase in cell size→increased organ size Physiologic or pathologic Triggers: Mechanical signals (stretch) Trophic Changes (growth factors, hormones, vasoactive agents Cell Changes Increased protein in cell components not in the cell fluid
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Hyperplasia Hyperplasia Increase in the number of cells due to increase in the rate of cell division. Compensatory: adaptive and allows for organ regeneration Hormonal: Estrogen dependent organs Pathologic: abnormal proliferation of normal cells, in response to ↑hormonal or growth factors
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Dysplasia Dysplasia Abnormal changes in SIZE, SHAPE or ORGANIZATION of mature cells. Not a true adaptive process AKA: “atypical hyperplasia” Often can be reversed if the stimulus is removed.
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Metaplasia Metaplasia Reversible replacement of one mature cell by another less differentiated cell. Thought to develop from a reprogramming of stem cells Lungs→ normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchial lining replaced with stratified squamous epithelial cells
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Cell Injury Cell Injury Cell is unable to maintain homeostasis Injured cells may recover (reversible) or die (irreversible) Types Hypoxic Injury Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species Injury Chemical Injury
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Hypoxic Injury Hypoxic Injury Most common cause of cellular injury Lack of sufficient oxygen (hypoxia-(decreased
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course 830 201 taught by Professor Leyton during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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Lecture 1 - Cellular Attractions - Cellular Alterations...

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