Lecture 2 - Innate Defenses

Lecture 2 - Innate Defenses - InnateDefenses: Inflammation...

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    Innate Defenses: Inflammation
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Objectives Identify innate defense mechanisms. Understand the physiology of the acute  inflammatory process. Identify the cells of the inflammatory process. Differentiate between the characteristics  associated with acute and chronic  inflammation. Describe alterations in the process of wound  healing.
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Human Defense Mechanisms Innate Resistance Natural Barriers: First line of defense Physical : Skin (epithelial cells) and  membranes lining the GI,  GU, and  respiratory tracts. Mechanical : Sloughing of skin cells     Coughing/Sneezing     Vomiting/ Voiding    Cilia in the respiratory tract, trap and move  pathogens upward.
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First Line of Defense (cont.) Biochemical Barriers Mucus Perspiration Earwax Saliva Normal bacterial flora Nonpathogenic bacteria that reside on the body  surfaces Contribute to innate protection against pathogens Can be altered with antibiotics and cause an  overgrowth of pathogenic organisms
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Second Line of Defense Inflammation Can be activated in any vascularized  tissue Microscopic Changes Vasodilation (increase in size of the blood  vessel) Increase vascular permeability (leakage of  fluid, slowing of microcirculation, increased  blood flow) and    RBCs (warmth and  redness) WBCs adhere to the inner walls of the  vessels.
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Goals of Inflammation Control the amount of tissue damage Prevent infection through  microorganism contamination Initiate the adaptive immune response Initiate the healing process
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Mast Cell Most important activator of the  inflammatory response. Located in loose connective tissue close  to blood vessels at the body’s outer  surface, filled with granules When activated, mast cell mediators  released by: Degranulation Synthesis
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Mast Cell Degranulation:  Released from granules Histamine Vasoactive amine Smooth muscle constriction/dilation of venules  → ↑ blood flow to microcirculation. Increased vascular permeability  Increased adherence of leukocytes to endothelium Chemotactic Factors Force cell movement towards inflammation Neutrophil chemotactic factor*** Eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis (attracts  eosinophils)
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Mast Cell: Synthesis of Other  Mediators Released later than those in the granules Leukotrienes Histamine like effects (increased vascular  permeability) Prostaglandins Vascular permeability Neutrophil chemotaxis pain  Platelet-activating factor Similar to leukotrienes in action
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Degranulation and Synthesis of  Biologic Mediators of Mast Cells
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course 830 201 taught by Professor Leyton during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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Lecture 2 - Innate Defenses - InnateDefenses: Inflammation...

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