Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - 2.1Composition of the Atom40 Electrons,...

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2.1 Composition of the Atom 40 Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons 40 Isotopes 42 2.2 Development of Atomic Theory 45 Dalton's Theory 46 Evidence for Subatomic Particles: Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons 46 Evidence for the Nucleus 46 2.3 Light, Atomic Structure, and the Bohr Atom 47 Light and Atomic Structure 47 The Bohr Atom 50 Modern Atomic Theory 52 2.4 The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table 53 Numbering Groups in the Periodic Table 54 Periods and Groups 55 Metals and Nonmetals 55 Atomic Number and Atomic Mass 56
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Charge Mass (amu) Mass (g) Electron (e) 1 5.4 × 10 4 9.1095 × 10 28 Proton (p) +1 1.00 1.6725 × 10 24 Neutron (n) 0 1.00 1.6750 × 10 24 Atomic Number Mass Number Charge of particle Symbol of the atom C A Z X atomic number ( Z ) = number of protons mass number ( A ) = number of protons + number of neutrons Atom - the basic structural unit of an element
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B 11 5 Fe 55 26 Questions 9 19 F neutron proton electron charge 2 4 He
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Hydrogen (Hydrogen - 1) Deuterium (Hydrogen - 2) Tritium (Hydrogen - 3) Isotopes: atoms of the same element having different masses same number of protons, different number of neutrons Isotopes: same element, number of protons, identical chemical properties
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Atomic mass: weighted average mass of an element represents the average of masses in amu of the mix of isotopes 17 35 Cl Calculate the atomic mass of naturally occurring chlorine (75.77% chlorine-35 and 24.23% chlorine-37). 17 37 Cl 75.77% 24.23% Naturally occurring chlorine Step 1 : convert the percentage to a decimal fraction 0.7577 chlorine-35 0.2423 chlorine-37 Step 2 : isotope contribution to the atomic mass. For chlorine-35: 0.7577 x 35.00 amu = 26.52 amu For chlorine-37: 0.2423 x 37.00 amu = 8.965 amu Step 3 : sum these partial weights to get the weighted average atomic mass of chlorine: 26.52 amu + 8.965 amu = 35.49 amu
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Atomic Mass Determination Nitrogen consists of two naturally occurring isotopes 99.63% nitrogen-14 with a mass of 14.003 amu 0.37% nitrogen-15 with a mass of 15.000 amu What is the atomic mass of nitrogen? 99.63% = 0.9963
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course 830 201 taught by Professor Leyton during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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Lecture 2 - 2.1Composition of the Atom40 Electrons,...

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