Lecture 11

Lecture 11 - 6.4ConcentrationDependentSolutionProperties

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4 oncentration ependent Solution Properties 6.4 Concentration Dependent Solution Properties •Vapor Pressure Lowering •Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation •Calculating Freezing Points and Boiling Points of Aqueous Solutions •Osmotic Pressure, Osmosis, and Osmolarity 6.5 Aqueous Solutions •Water as a Solvent •Electrolytes in Solution •Biological Effects of Electrolytes in Solution General, Organic and Biochemistry 7 th Edition
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6.4 Concentration Dependent Solution Properties olligative properties roperties of solutions that depend on the ncentration Colligative properties properties of solutions that depend on the concentration of the solute particles , rather than the identity of the solute Four colligative properties of solutions 1. vapor pressure lowering 2. boiling point elevation 3. freezing point depression 4. osmotic pressure Vapor Pressure of a Liquid Vapor pressure of a solution results from escape of solvent molecules from liquid to gas phase artial pressure of gas phase solvent molecules increases until equilibrium Partial pressure of gas phase solvent molecules increases until equilibrium vapor pressure is reached Presence of solute molecules hinders escape of solvent molecules, lowering quilibrium vapor pressure equilibrium vapor pressure
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Raoult s law when a nonvolatile solute is added to a solvent, vapor pressure f the solvent decreases in proportion to the concentration of the solute of the solvent decreases in proportion to the concentration of the solute Solute molecules (yellow below) serve as a barrier to the escape of solvent molecules (green) resulting in a decrease in the vapor pressure 0 P 0 P P X P solvent ) ( lvent moles ) ( ) ( solvent solute solvent solvent moles moles X
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Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation Freezing point depression may be explained considering the equilibrium between solid and liquid states. lute interfere with the rate at which liquid water associate to form the solid state
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course 830 201 taught by Professor Leyton during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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Lecture 11 - 6.4ConcentrationDependentSolutionProperties

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