Study Guide Final 1

Study Guide Final 1 - Cellular Metabolism Cellular...

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Cellular Metabolism Cellular Metabolism Provides cell with needed energy Anabolism: energy-using process of metabolism Catabolism: energy-releasing process Metabolic pathway: ATP Production ATP: adenine triphosphate energy carrying and transferring molecule energy is stored by molecules of carbohydrates, proteins and fats a) Production of ATP Catabolism of carbohydrate, proteins and fat (3 phases) Phase 1: Digestion Digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. These molecules get broken down into much smaller molecules. Proteins → Amino acids Carbohydrates → simple sugars Fats → Fatty acids Phase 2: Glycolysis (splitting of glucose) → 2 ATP Glucose molecule gets split in the cytoplasm Phase 3: Citric Acid Cycle Where most ATP is produced Oxidative phosphorylation – mitochondria process after the citric acid cycle (diagram in the book) If there is no oxygen available to the cels, we need to perform anaerobic glycolysis and this is the generation of ATP in the absence of oxygen If there is no oxygen, there is lactic acid build up Energy produced by carbohydrates, proteins and fats are transferred to ATP Electron transport chain Anaerobic glycolysis Metastasis Metastasis: Spread of cancer cells to a distal site Local spread: first step in metabolic process Can determine the overall prognosis of the patient in terms of survival Patterns of Metastasis: Spread through vascular and lymphatic pathways
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other pathways (tissue selectivity) render common sites of metastasis Lung → Brain Breast → bone, lung, brain, liver Prostate → bone Clinical Manifestations Clinical Manifestations: Depletion of CD4 count (a molecule on the helper T cels0 normal range is 600mm3- 1200m3 – profound effect on immune system Presence of circulating antibody against HIV Exposed individuals can remain negative for 7-14 months after sexually transmitted exposure or can become positive usually within 6-7 weeks after infection through blood
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Study Guide Final 1 - Cellular Metabolism Cellular...

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