This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Development of the United States The Urban Industrial Revolution in America Theme: post-Civil War era saw the creation of a new industrial order in America, and a pace of economic
grth unprecedented in world history. The distinguishing characteristic of that new order was large-scale
businesses that dominated particular markets (monopoly). The creation of large-scale industrial concerns was
not a smooth process, but one marked by ﬁerce competition among ﬁrms. The rise of large-scale industry was
made possible by the immigration of millions Europeans—~most came from rural backgrounds in Italy and
Eastern Europe; most were Jewish or Catholic, not Protestant. Manu of these immigrants would, in fact, take
their wages and return to Europe, but for those who stayed the American urban landscape and political order
would create a profoundly “New World.” Certain ills belong to the hardships of human life. They are natural. They are part of the struggle with Nature for existence. We
cannot blame our fellow~men for our share of these. My neighbor and I are both struggling to free ourselves from these ills. The fact
that my neighbor has succeeded in this struggle better than I constitutes no grievance to me..... The humanitarians, philanthropists,
and reformers looking at the facts of life as they present themselves, ﬁnd enough which is sad and unpromising in the condition of
many members of society. They see wealth and poverty side by side. They note great inequality of social position and social chances.
They eagerly set about the attempt to account for what they see, and to devise schemes for remedying what they do not like. In their
eagerness to recommend the less fortunate classes to pity and consideration they forget all about the rights of other classes, they gloss
over all the faults of the classes in question, and they exaggerate their misfortune and virtue....1tf0llows....that one man, in a free state, cannot claim help from and cannot be charged to give help to another. William Graham Sumner (1883) We mean to make things over, we are tired of tail for naught With but bare enough to live on, and ne'er an hour for thought; We want to feel the sunshine, and we want to smell the ﬂowers, We are sure that God has willed it, and we mean to have eight hours. We ’re summoning out forces from the shipyard, shop, and mill. Chorus: Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest, eight hours for what we will.
Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest, eight hours for what we will. "Eight Hour Day," ca. 1880s I. Andrew Carnegie: from Railroads to Steel -— Pittsburgh boyhood —- Tom Scott & the Pennsylvania Railroad -- cut costs and proﬁts will take care of themselves
-- the jump to steel —- J .P. Morgan & US. Steel
-- Carnegie the philanthropist II. An Industrial Work Force
-— Old/New Imrhigration
—- Why did they come? push/pull, chain migration, return
— three stories
Korean immigrants to California
Hungarian immigrants to Pennsylvania
Italian immigrants to New York City
-—new urban landscape
-— new political order Identification: Andrew Carnegie, "new" immigration, tenements, political machines, Democratic Party,
Republican Party, William Graham Sumner -. _ -. WORKING-CLASS YEARLY FAMILY BUDGET Seamstress
Mrs. M., sewing, 14 weeks, averaged $5.00 a week $ 70.00
" " " 38 " " 3.00 " l 14.00
Girl, 13, earned in summer 14.00
Mother, extra work 20.50
St. Vincent de Paul Society, grocery tickets V 26.00
" " " " " shoes 4.00
Charity Organization Society, for rent 11.50
Moving expenses . 3.00
Income, January 1, 1904, to January 1, 1905, $489.
Food (about $4.00 a week) $205.00
Rent, $9.00 avmonth ' 108.00
'Gas and coal 26.00
Clothing _ 24.00
Clothing for baby 8.00
Books and papers 7.80
Recreation in summer 7.00
Kitchen needs 8.00
’ Miscellaneous (stamps, paper, thread, pins, etc.) 1420
$489.00 Figure 1.3. Country of Origin of Immigrants to the United States, 1907 (Number of arrivals in thousands) .A'
.4", The rise of immigration from countries in southern aria eastern Europe had become very pronounced in 1907, the peak year of afﬁual imaﬁigration'up to that time. . Germany
50 Source: Philip Taylor, The DistantMagnet:Eurap
and Row, 1971), Diagram 1, p. 63. eon Emigration lo the USA. (New York: Harper m_:e.... ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course US HISTORY 512:104 taught by Professor Stevenmcgrail during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.
- Spring '10
- The Land