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Outline+7+Progressive+Movement - Development of the United...

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Unformatted text preview: Development of the United States The Progressive Movement, [900- 1914 Theme: in addressing the urban- industrial ills of American society, Progressivism fashioned a new form of government in America People increasingly looked to the national government to solve local problems, and government increasingly' 'administered" solutions, relying in the advice of' ','experts ' rather than merely legislating The progressive period, then, marked the beginning of the 'welfare state" in America, but unlike in Europe, private groups continued to have major responsibility for addressing social problems as did state government I. What Was Progressivism? A. Discovery of Corruption (role of the muckrakers): -Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives (1897) -1da Tarbell History of Standard Oil (1903) -Lincoln Steffen’s Shame of the Cities (1904) ~Upton Sinclair's The Jungle (1906) B. Middle Class attempt to order and control the world of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and the "new" immigration C. Fixing political corruption: Woodrow Wilson in New Jersey, Charles Evan Hughes in New York, Hugh Johnson in Califomia; Robert LaFollette in Wisconsin D.. Three levels: reform movements, state programs, andnew, activist role for federal government II. Reformers initiate Progressivism: Jane Addams and the SettlementfHouse Movement ‘ A. women enter the wage and salaried workforce B. women take on responsibility for moral reform WCTU and YWCA i C. college education for women D. Jane Addams — background, Republican Party of Lincoln E. career options: - teaching or missionary work? F. Ellen Gates Starr and Jane Addams visit London ' G. establishing a settlement house in Chicago H. female reformers, middle class businessmen, and government 1. subsequent career: pacifist (TR’s "Bull Mouse") and Noble Peace prize «be med J. assessing the significance of Jane Addams II. Federal Attack on Bigness: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson A. the problem of trusts B. The ineffectiveness of the Interstate Commerce Commission and the _> .. Sherman AntiTrust Act 9 C. the Conservative Reformer: Theodore Roosevelt -—genteel upbringing; Harvard, the Badlands, Rough Rider —-Civil Service Reformer, NY Police Commissioner, VP --President ; good trusts v. bad trusts , D. strengthening the Interstate Commerce Commission E. taking on the meat industry —— less than Upton Sinclair wanted F. Roosevelt and conservation : IV. What did Progressivism Accomplish - the new federal welfare state . u Identification: Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson (from text), anti-trust policy, Jane Addams, settlement houses, progressivism, XIX Amendment, muekrakers ' . Upton Sinclair’s Attack on the Meat " .‘ Packers, 1906 \ . . . And then there was the condemned meat indus: try, with its endless horrors. The people of Chicago saw the government inspectors in Packingtown, and they all took that to mean that they were protected from diseased meat; they did not understand that these hundred and sixty-three inspectors had been appointed at the. request of the packers, and that they were paid by the United States government to certify that all the diseased meat was kept in the state. They had no authority beyond that; for the inspection of meat to be sold in the city and state the whole force in Packingtown consisted of three henchmen of the. local political machine! . . . . . _ ‘ . . . v . Of the butchers and floorsmen, the beef bon- ers and trimmers, and all those who used knives, you . could scarcely find a person who had the use of his ._ thumb; time and time again the base of it had been slashed, till it was a mere lump of flesh against which the man pressed the knife to hold it. The hands of these men would be criss-crossed with cuts, until you ‘could no longer pretend to count them or to trace them. They would have no,nails,—-they had worn them off pulling hides; their knuckles were swollen so that their fingers spread out like a fan. There were men who worked in the cooking rooms, in the midst of steam and sickening odors, by artificial light; in these rooms the germs of tuberculosis might live for tvim years, but the supply was renewed every hour. There were the beef luggers, who carried two- hundred-pound quarters into the refrigerator cars, a fearful kind of work, that began at four o’clock in the morning, and that wore out the most powerful men in a few years. There were those who worked in the chilling rooms, and whose special disease was rheu- matism; the time limit that a man could work in the . Chilling rooms was said to be five years. There were the Wool pluckers, whose hands went to pieces even sooner dranme hands ofthe pickle men; for the pelts of the sheep-Had'to be painted with acid to loosen the wool, anddtenrthe pluckers had to pull out this wool with their harehands, till the acid had eaten their fingers off. There were those who made the tins for ' ‘ the canned meat, and their hands, too, were a maze of , - cuts, and each cut represented a chance for blood; . feet above the one they ran on, which gor them into the habit of stooping, so that in a few years they would be walking like chimpanzees. Worst of any, - however, were the fertilizer men, and those who served in the cooking rooms. These people could not be shown to the visitor—for the odor of a fertilizer man would scare away any ordinary visitor at a hun- dred yards, and as for the other men, who worked in tank rooms full of steam, and in some of which there were open vats near the level of the floor, their pecu- liar trouble was that they fell into the vats; and when they were fished out, there was never enough of them " left to be worth exhibiting—sometimes they would be overlooked for days, till all but the bones of them had gone out to the world as Durham’s Pure leaf Lard! . . . - . There was never the least attention paid to what was cut up for sausage; there would come all the way . back from Europe old sausage that had been rejected, and that was mouldy and white-it would be dosed- with borax and glycerine, and dumped into the hop- pers, and made over again for home consumption. There would he meat that had rumbled out on the floor, in the dirt and sawdust, where the workers had tramped and spit uncounted billions of consumption germs. There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from leaky roofs would drip over it, and thousands of rats would raoe about on it. It was too dark in these storage places to see .well, but a man could run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of the dried dung of rats. These rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poi- _ soned bread out for them, they would die, and then tats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers to~ -gether. This is no fairy story and no joke; the meat would be shovelled into carts, and the man who did the shoveling would not trouble to lift out a rat even when he saw one—there were things that went into the sausage in comparison with which a poisoned rat was a tidbit. ' poisoning. Some worked at the stamping machines, t . . and it was very séldOm that one could work long ‘ there at the pace that was set, and not give outand forget hiimelf, and havea part of his hand chopped . : off. There were t'he“hoisters,” as they were called, ' whose'task it was to press the lever which lifted the dead cattle off the floor. They ran along upon a rafter, peering down through the damp and the steam, and as old Durham’s architects had not, built the killing room for the convenience of the hoisters, at every few feet they would have to stoop under a'beam,'say four . ...
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