Outline+10+Depression+and+New+Deal - Development of the...

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Unformatted text preview: Development of the United States The Great Depression and the New Deal Theme: the Great Depression (1929—1941), triggered by the crash of the stock market, was the worst economic disaster America has ever faced. President Herbert Hoover (elected 1928)’s emphasis on local relief and voluntary effort proved inadequate, both economically and politically. Democrat Franklin Roosevelt (elected 1932) initially did little better than Hoover, but over the first of four terms fashioned a broad program of Relief, Reform, and Recovery, that gave millions a way to survive the depression and fundamentally changed the way the government regulated the economy. Roosevelt’s policy, however, did not end the depression — rather, World War II did. 1. Herbert Hoover — End of the "Jazz Age" and the Election of 1928 — Al Smith - Herbert Hoover — engineer, business progressive, and entrepreneurial millionaire II. Stock Market Crash and the Onset of the Great Depression —stock speculation, structural weakness of old “production” economy, banking failures, agricultural depression that began in the 1920s, world-Wide dimension III. The Meaning of the Great Depression —- class mattered ..poor were desperate, middle class - humiliated and afraid, the rich rode it through IV. Hoover's response - character building, localism, private initiative -late, reluctant experiment: Reconstruction Finance Corporation - Bonus Marchers: Douglas MacArthur crushes veterans’ protest V. Coming of the New Deal - the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) - Roosevelt: character and beliefs: unsystematic thinker, bold politician, Brain Trust — overcoming the legacy of progressivism? voluntary, self-help approaches state solutions not federal government role of the courts and judicial review VI. Basic Chronology: -“First New Deal”—energy, imagination, compassion, but unplanned approach on the National Industrial recovery Act (NIRA) and Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) -“Second” New Deal”: turning to the left — Wagner Act and Social Security VII. Example: Indian New Deal —conflicted heritage: assimilation or reservations? John Collier, Bureau of Indian Affairs - Progressive era “Friends of the Indian” —Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) of 1934 -Navajo Reaction vocabulary: Al Smith, Herbert Hoover, Franklin Roosevelt, Great Depression, Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Agricultural Adjustment Act, Wagner Act, Indian New Deal Two" Views oi: Soo‘llmern A3 ricul'lvre'dupms 11K. Greed‘ Depression North Carolina landowner and iochm Harmer "We plant about four acres of cotton a year, and it’s really more trouble than eight of tobacco. We have twenty acres of corn and two or three of hay, but nothing gives me pleasure like tobacco. I never have raised anything that 1 like to raise half so well. "My father was raising the weed before I was born and my grandfather made it when it had to be sent to Virginia in hogs- heads. He made as high as thirty aCres some years, but he had plenty of slaves to work it. His job was to oversee the overseer, and that’s all he had .to do. Now if that was all I had to do, I don’t think I’d mind raising a hundred acres. "When me and Annie got married we rented a farm and started raising tobacco. It was a wet year and our tobacco moulded, and we had dysentery. The next year we made four acres of tobacco, but the bottom dropped out of the price and our crop didn’t bring enough to pay for fertilizer. Cotton was low, too, that was 1916, and I never saw so many hoboes as was traveling that year. El- dridge, our oldest son, was bOrn that year. Another bad year was 1917. We didn’t make a good crop and prices was still low. It was better in 1918, but the price of food and clothes had gone up, and we had another son, Clifford, that year. The years that followed were better, but after the old lady gave Annie this place the house had to be fixed up and wired, taxes had to be paid, barns had to be built, fertilizer had to be bought, and we had five kids to support and send to school. It took some hustling, and Annie worked so hard she ruined her health and had to have two operations, which :ost us over $1,000. That was more than the profit on our crop for a :ouple of years. ._ U . ..,. . "I don't think we’d ought to have crop control;‘ I think the government ought to leave us farmers alone. We don’t mind our crops selling for nothing if we can get our food, clothes, and fertil- izer for nothing, too. We want an even break, and it seems to me like the government could force down other prices easier than it can raise the prices of farm products. All we expect is a living and a little over. "Now this year I expect to make around $2,000 on my tobacco, but half of it will go for expenses, and then there’s the truck I bought to haul it in still to account for. There’s a barn that’ll have to have a new roof, some new harness has got to be bought, and fertilizer for another year, in addition to living expenses, and then I might not be able to get $2,000 for my crop. We always have to figure on starting a new year with nothing. There’s one thing you can count on though; Lee Hughes’ll have plenty of peas, corn, and potatoes, and he’ll be raising tobacco as long as he’s able to stir. Yes ma’am, tobacco’s in my blood for keeps, and I’ve got a real honest- to—goodness passion for it.” Mary A. Hicks 'A government program to raise farm prices by subsidizing the reduction of farm )utput. t l landlord, de shurf is landlord, ever’body is landlord, en we ain' got i ArKanSQS Cropper “How do we farm? Well, dey’s sev’ul diff’unt ways. Dare is de cash rentuh, but we has always sharecropped, on a third and a four—~he furnish de house en de land en credicks you enough to live on, en den you settles at de end of de year. In de cotton we gives him a fourth, in de cawn he gits a third-ain’ dat right, honey?” he asked his wife. "Anyhow, when you raise four bales of cotton de landlord gits one en you git three, and if you raise three wagonloads of cawn he gits de first one en you git the other two. "Landlord’s got a store on de place, en he ’low you so much a week on de books—dey wuz four in my family and he didn’ ’low us but a twenty-four-poun’ sack of flouah, en a twenty-four—poun’ . sack of meal, en eight poun’s of lard, en maybe a bar of soap. Ef you got molasses you didn’ git no sugah, en ef you got bakin’ powdah you didn’ git no sody-—~Meat? Whooo! We didn’ git no meat, but we’d ketch a mess of fish now en den, en de nex’ year we had ouah own meat. ' ”_De landlord wouldn’ give us no land foh a garden, er no wire to fence it, ef we could of got some land. He ain’ like Mistuh Brewer ' down de road. Mistuh Brewer give his ’croppers land foh a garden, en if dey use it he doan’ charge ’em no rent, but ef dey doan’ use it he makes ’em pay rent on it, eight dollars an acre—but we had to plant cotton right up to de do’. I L-a. W“! . .. .- .: .:.- agr- :'x£L-<lu“:&1h':,- . "Most of us is credick men—~you gives a dime foh a_ nickel box at matches, and a dime foh a nickel bah of soap—mebbe two foh fifteen, en you kin git flouah en meal in town foh about half Whut it cost you out’n the comm’sary. We-el, yas, suh, I meant de cash price in town, dey ain’ no credick in town, less’n yo’ landlord stand good, en den dey marks you up en he git a percent off’n you. Sometimes where dey ain’ no sto’ on the plantation all de land— lords goes in and buys stock in de sto’ in town, en hit’s jus’ de same. "De landlord is landlord, de politicians is landlord, de judge is nothin’! "You take de acre p’duction checks de gov’munt gives foh not plantin’ cotton: fust dey wuz made out so’s we couldn’ git ’em thout de landlord——-dey wuz even sent to him——en he mark ’em up en mark ’em down, en mark you up in de comm’sary en mark you down, en den we didn’t git no checks, we jus’ signed en git whut he say we had comin’. En de landlord think he ought to have all the acre p’duction checks, cause it his land, en we oughtn’ to git nothin’, but de Tenant Farmers’ Union" put up a kick, en now dey send us de checks—~ef we evah git anoth’un. Who gives de checks out? I doan’ know who, jus’ de gov’munt. But dey comes thoo d8 county board, en dey is all landlords~ “l thinks mebbe nex’ year I’ll git a place on Sebastian McEery'S farm-he’s a colored man—en he’s mo’ apt to treat me right, en den 1 kin have a garden, en a patch 0’ peanuts, en some ArSh ’taters, en some sweet ’ta_ters; en Sebastian got screens on all his houses. l’d lots ruther work for a colored landlord than a white ,5 man one. ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course US HISTORY 512:104 taught by Professor Stevenmcgrail during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.

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Outline+10+Depression+and+New+Deal - Development of the...

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