Outline+13+Cold+War - THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR,...

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Unformatted text preview: THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR, 1945-1952 Theme: the deterioration of American—Soviet relations after W Wll and the American effort to uproot domestic subversion were closely related and had deep roots in more than a half century of American economic expansion and American fear of European radicalism. Prologue: The Cuban Missile Crisis - 1962 I. Was the Cold War Inevitable? a. Soviets & Americans as wartime allies b. Post War Tensions: Eastern Europe, Greece, Iran c. A—Bomb Diplomacy (:1. Harry S. Truman and Josef Stalin II. The Cold War in America - underlying causes a. the (American) Communist Party — “they were sitting ducks”! b. J. Edgar Hoover and persistent anti—communism c. Truman’s response: Loyalty Programs but veto of Taft—Hartley d. Communists as spies (Alger Hiss, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg) and subversives (Dennis case). 111. The Cold War Unfolds a. Truman Doctrine ~ containment (1947) b. MarshallPlan (1947) c. Hungary & Czechoslovakia (1947—1948) d. Berlin Blockade (1948) e. Soviet A—Bomb (1949) f. Chinese Communists victorious (1949) g. North Korea invades South Korea (1950) Epilogue: Joseph McCarthy and McCarthyism (Point of Order) Vocabulary: Yalta, Marshall Plan, Harry Truman, Josef Stalin, J. Edgar Hoover, Joseph McCarthy, Korean War, Rosenberg case, Alger Hiss, Cuban Missile Crisis Thirteen Days. Somewhat fictionalized version of the crisis in the Kennedy White House afier the discovery by U~2 American spy planes that the Soviets had put missiles in Cuba and were planning to bring in nuclear warheads for them. John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, Robert McNamara, General Curtis LeMay are accurately portrayed. Kevin Costner plays a mostly fictionalized special assistant to JFK. Point of Order. The film provides highlights from the nationally televised April 1954 Army—McCarthy hearings. McCarthy had changed that their were communists and communist sympathizers in the army (particularly at Fort Dix and Camp Kilmer in New Jersey); the army had refused to turn over its records, and countered charged that McCarthy had brought personal pressure on the Army to show favoritism to Private G. David Schine, a former McCarthy staff member and friend of Roy Cohn, McCarthy‘s general counsel. The charges and counter charges led to a Senate hearing. The most famous moment of that hearing'came when Joseph Welsh, a Boston lawyer hired to represent the Army, ‘ attacked McCarthy for smearing one of his assistants, Fred Fisher. McCarthy had uncovered the fact that Fisher, a respected community member and leader in the local Republican Party, had earlier in his life been part of the National Lawyers’ Guild — a legal association tied to the Communist Party. Welsh’s attack on McCarthy helped turn public opinion against McCarthy. The Senate censured McCarthy, but only for his disrespect of his colleagues, not for his anti- communist witch—hunting. ' 1This is a paraphrase from Ellen Schrecker’s Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America — perhaps the best overview of the politics of the era. ' ' The Cold War Foreign Feb 45: Yalta Conference May 45: Germany surrenders Jul 45: Potsdam Conference Aug 45: A—Bombs dropped on Japan Mar 46: Churchill’s "Iron Curtain" speech Feb 47: Britain withdraws from Greece Mar 47: Truman Doctrine proclaimed May 47: Congress commits aid to Greece Jun 47: Marshall Plan announced Jul 47: Kennan's "Mr. X" article Aug 47: Hungarian government falls to Communists Feb 48: Czechoslovakia coup; murder , of Jan Masaryk Mar 48: Marshall Plan approved 48: CIA gains approval for covert operations Jul 48: Soviet Berlin blocade B—29s sent to England Apr 49: NATO created May 49: Berlin blocade lifted Sep 49: Soviet A-Bomb exploded Dec 49: Mao drives Chang from China Apr 50: NSC68 approved Jun 50: North Korea invades South Korea; American troops ' committed Oct 50: Americans invade North Korea Nov 50: China enters Korean War Mar 51: American hydrogen bomb exploded Dec 52: American aid begins to French in Indo—China Jul 53: Korean armistice May 54: Fall of Dien Bien Phu Sep 54: SEATO formed Jan 55: Quemoy and Matsu shelled by Chinese Domestic Apr 45: Truman becomes President Feb Nov Mar Jul Sum Aug Nov Dec Oct Jan Feb May Sep Jun Mar Apr Nov Apr Jun Apr Jul 45: 46: 46: 51: 54: HUAC given permanent status Canadian atomic spy ring uncovered Truman creates loyalty commission E09835: comprehensive loyalty program begun Hollywood HUAC hearings indictments against leaders of CP under Smith Act (1940) Truman attacks Wallace for links to Communists Chambers accuses Kiss of communist involvement Truman elected Hiss indicted for perjury CP leaders found guilty in W» Hiss convicted of perjury Klaus Fuchs‘arrested Joe McCarthy charges communists in State Dept Rosenbergs arrested as atomic spies McCarran Act (Nixon—Mundt) Dennis convictions upheld Rosenbergs convicted EO—1024l: new loyalty program Eisenhower elected EO—10450: new loyalty program Rosenbergs executed Army—McCarthy hearings Senate considers censuring McCarthy 1 Communist Control Act passed Stalin dies ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course US HISTORY 512:104 taught by Professor Stevenmcgrail during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.

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Outline+13+Cold+War - THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR,...

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