Outline+16+Coming+Apart+Kennedy+to+Nixon

Outline+16+Coming+Apart+Kennedy+to+Nixon - Development of...

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Unformatted text preview: Development of the United States Lecture 18 Coming Apart: Kennedy to Nixon Theme: the American liberal state, forged during the progressive era and expanded during the New Deal, reached its high point during Lyndon Johnson’s War on Poverty. Frustrations over Johnson’s social programs (the War on Poverty) and his escalation of the Vietnam War led to a realignment of the American electorate that brought Richard Nixon to power. Nixon, a conservative Republican, did not end "liberalism" or attempt to dismantle the New Deal, but his almost paranoid concern about protecting his own power eventually led to his undoing. A. The Unrealized Promise of the Kennedy Years, 1960—1963 ~Kennedy: a vigorous cold warrior looking backward ~Kennedy’s career —— winning came easily ~election of 1960: crisis, heroism, sacrifice ~first two years: little ventured, little gained -turning point: The Cuban Missile Crisis —1963: civil rights, poverty, and a test—ban treaty B. Lyndon B. Johnson, 1963~1968 —a "good old boy" from Texas and child of FDR ~dominant congressional leader “election of 1964: Johnson triumphant C. Origins of the War on Poverty —historical assumptions about poverty mix of public and private responsibility, voluntary localist solutions more often than national poverty best attacked by changing behavior of poor and providing greater opportunity separation of social insurance (Social Security) from public assistance/welfare (AFDC) ~Progressive Response: child saving (foster care, juvenile courts, compulsory education, mothers’ pensions); worker’s compensation; welfare capitalism —New Deal: from jobs to relief creation of Social Security and ADC (AFDC) labor law: Wagner Act & Fair Labor Standards Act D. LBJ's "War on Poverty" —origins: Michael Harrington’s The Other America; the race issue —assumptions about poverty ~Economic Opportunity Act Title II: Community Action Operation Headstart food stamps Medicare & Medicaid Jobs Corps —what went wrong? : ~alternatives? federally created jobs guaranteed minimum income (negative income tax) ~what was accomplished E. Richard M. Nixon: politics of polarization, 1968-1973 —politics in the 1970s loss of confidence in government rise of single issue interest groups television as politics growth of federal budget —Nixon’s career: vicious and victorious antiwcommunist ~Eisenhower’s hatchet man ~~ the Checker's speech —from oblivion to the White House —the new majority: southern whites, northern Catholics, and Sun Belt voters —Nixon as conservative reformer? ~peace with honor: Vietnamization, bombing Laos, invading Cambodia ~recognizing China; normalizing relations with the Soviet Union. F. Why Watergate? Identification: War on Poverty, Richard M. Nixon, Lyndon Johnson, Cuban Missile Crisis, John. F. Kennedy ‘ ' Watergate. I W'\\ i Against a background of riots, strikes, and other as- sorted violence and ill will, Chicago’s beloved Mayor Daley stage—managed Hubert Horatio Humphrey to vic— torj'ivand his party’s nomination. 8/29/68 The Sharon Statement Adopted in conference at Sharon, Connecticut, on 11 September 1960. In this time of moral and political crises, it is the responsibility of the youth of America to afiirm certain eternal truths. We, as young conservatives, believe: That foremost among the transcendent values is the individual's use of his God—given free will, whence derives his right to be free from the restrictions of arbitrary force; That liberty is indivisible, and that political freedom cannot long exist without economic freedom; That the purpose of government is to protect those freedoms through the preservation of internal order, the provision of national defense, and the administration of justice; That when government ventures beyond these rightful functions, it accumulates power, which tends to diminish order and liberty; ' _ , That the Constitution of the United States is the best arrangement yet devised for empowering government to fulfill its proper role, while restraining it from the concentration and abuse of power; _ , ' r That the genius of the Constitution— the division of powers— is summed up in the clause that reserves _ primacy to the several states, or to the people, in those spheres not specifically delegated to the Federal government; , That the market economy, allocating resources by the free play of supply and demand, is the single , economic system compatible with the requirements of personal freedom and constitutional government, and that it is ' at the same time the most productive supplier of human needs; ‘ _ That when government interferes with the work of the market economy, it tends to reduce the moral and physical strength of the nation; that when it takes from one man to bestow on another, it diminishes the incentive of = the first, the integrity of the second, and the moral autonomy of both; : That we will be free only so long as the national sovereignty of the United States is secure; that history shows periods of freedom are rare, and can exist only when free citizens concertedly defend" their rights against all enemies; ' . . ' That the forces of international Communism are, at present, the greatest single threat to these liberties; That the United States should stress victory over, rather than coexistance with, this menace; and That American foreign policy must be judged by this criterion: does it serve the just interests of the United V States? 5 ' From: Port Huron Statement of the Students for a Democratic Society, 1962 Courtesy Office of Sen. Tom Hayden. We are people of this generation, bred in at least modest comfort, housed now in universities, looking uncomfortably to the world we inherit. ' When we were kids the United States was the wealthiest and strongest country in‘the world: the only one with the atom bomb, the least scarred by modern war, an initiator of the United Nations that we, thought would distribute Western influence throughout the world. Freedom and equality for each individual, government of, by, and for the people —— these American values we found good, principles by which we could live as men. Many of us began maturing in complacency. As we grew, however, our comfort was penetrated by events too troubling to dismiss. First, the permeating and victimizing fact of human degradation, symbolized by the Southern struggle against racial bigotry, compelled most of us from silence to activism. Second, the enclosing fact of the Cold War, '- symbolized by the presence Of the Bomb, brought awareness that we ourselves, and our friends, and millions of abstract "others" we knew more directly because of our common peril, might die at any time. We might deliberately ignore, or avoid, or fail to feel all other human problems, but not these two, for these were too immediate and crushing in their impact, too challenging in the demand that we as individuals take the responsibility for encounter and resolution. As a social system we seek the establishment of a democracy of individual participation, governed by two central aims: that the individual share in those social decisions determining the quality and direction of his life; that society be organized to encourage independence in men and provide the media for their common participation. In a participatory democracy, the political life would be based in several root principles: that decision-making of basic social consequence be carried on by public groupings; that politics be seen positively, as the art of collectively creating an acceptable pattern of social relations; that politics has the function of bringing people out of isolation and into community, thus being a necessary, though not sufficient, means of finding meaning in personal life; ‘ that the political order should serve to clarify problems in a way instrumental to their solution; it should provide outlets for the expression of personal grievance and aspiration; opposing views should be organized so as to illuminate choices and facilities the attainment of goals; channels should be commonly available to related men to knowledge and to power so that private problems -- from bad recreation facilities to personal alienation -- are formulated as general issues. The economic sphere would have as its basis the principles: that work should involve incentives worthier than money or survival. It should be educative, not stultifying; creative, not mechanical; selfdirect, not manipulated, encouraging independence; a respect for others, a sense of dignity and a willingness to accept social responsibility, since it is this experience that has crucial influence on habits, perceptions and individual ethics; that the economic experience is so personally decisive that the individual must share in its full determination; that the economy itself is of such social importance that its major resources and means of production should be open to democratic participation and subject to democratic social regulation. ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course US HISTORY 512:104 taught by Professor Stevenmcgrail during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.

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Outline+16+Coming+Apart+Kennedy+to+Nixon - Development of...

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