Chapter 25 copy

Chapter 25 copy - Triose: 3 carbon sugar Tetrose: 4 carbon...

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Chapter 25 Chemistry of Carbohydrates
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What are little girls made of?
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• Sugar • Spice • Everything nice
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Table sugar is one example
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Biological roles of sugars • Energy Currency of Life -Immediate energy: Glucose -Stored energy: Glycogen • Structural Building Blocks -Cell walls of plants -Cell walls of bacteria -Extra-cellular matrix • Genetic Information -Backbone of both DNA and RNA
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• Cellular Markers – Molecular Receptors • Hormones: Insulin • Toxins: Cholera and Tetanus • Viruses: Influenza and HIV – Antigenic Determinants • Tumor associate antigens • Blood group determinants
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• Cell growth and differentiation – Cell-cell recognition – Cellular adhesion
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Sugars are poly-hydroxy aldehydes or ketones H O OH OH OH OH OH O OH OH OH O H OH HO
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Carbohydrate C n (H 2 O) m
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Classification Schemes • Monosaccharide vs. polysaccharide – Monosaccharide: Most simple unit – Polysaccharide: Beads on a string • Aldose vs. Ketose – Aldose: Aldehyde – Ketose: Ketone • Numeric descriptor
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Unformatted text preview: Triose: 3 carbon sugar Tetrose: 4 carbon sugar Pentose: 5 carbon sugar Reducing vs. non-reducing Cu++ (blue) + sugar -----> Cu+ (rust) + ox D or L H HO CH 2 OH O OH H CH 2 OH O H CHO OH OH H OH H OH H CH 2 OH HO CHO H OH H H HO HO HO CH 2 OH H O H HO H HO CH 2 OH H CHO OH OH H OH H CH 2 OH OH O OH OH OH O OH OH OH OH Pyranose H CHO OH OH H OH H CH 2 OH OH O OH OH Furanose HO O OH HO OH OH Anomers !-Furanose O OH HO OH OH H "-Furanose O OH HO OH H OH O OH OH OH !-Pyranose OH O OH OH OH "-Pyranose OH Haworth Projections O OH OH OH !-Pyranose OH O OH OH OH "-Pyranose OH O OH OH OH !-Pyranose OH O OH OH OH "-Pyranose OH HO O OH HO OH HO O OH HO OH O OH OH OH !-Pyranose OH MeOH/H + O OH OH OH !-Pyranoside OCH 3 Pyranosides are Glycosides Glycosides are acetals at the anomeric carbon HO O OH HO OH HO O OH HO OH HO O OH HO O O OH HO OH H + Reactions of monosaccharides...
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2012 for the course CHEM 352 taught by Professor Staff during the Winter '08 term at BYU.

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Chapter 25 copy - Triose: 3 carbon sugar Tetrose: 4 carbon...

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