handout_2_subgrouping

handout_2_subgrouping - M. Zender, Mayan Subgrouping , p. 1...

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M. Zender, ‘Mayan Subgrouping’ , p. 1 of 5 A Detailed Mayan Subgrouping and the Historical Position of the Yukatekan Subfamily 1.0 Introduction and Background 1.1 Subgrouping: Common Mayan 1, 2 5, 6, 7 3, 4 30? Western Mayan Greater Q’anjob’alan Eastern Mayan 16, 17 21, 31, 32 34 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 19, 20, 21 Yukatekan Common Wasteko- Ch’olan Q’anjob’al’an Motosintlekan Mamean K’ichee’an 40, 41 Wastekan Ch’olan-Tzeltalan 35a, 35b, 25, 24 23 33 36, 26, 37 27 Ch’olan Tzeltalan Kaqchikel K’ichee’ †Sakapultek Sipakapa Yucatec Huastec Ch’ol †Tzendal Q’anjob’al Motosintlek Mam Q’eqchi’ N.Lakantun †Chikomuseltek Chontal Tzeltal Akatek Tektitek? Awakatek Uspantek S.Lakantun †Ch’olti’ Tzotzil Jakaltek Tuzantek? Ixil Poqomam Itzaj Ch’orti’ Tojolab’al? Chuj? Teko Poqomchi’ Mopan Tz’utujil Yukatekan Ch’olan 38 W.Ch’olan E. Ch’olan Col.Yucatec 15 18, 23 46 47a-c †Ch’olti’ Yucatec Itzaj Mopan Chontal Ch’ol 15 S. Lakantun N.Lakantun Ch’orti’ Tzeltalan K’ichee’an 22 Q’eqchi’ 20 Uspantek 23, 39 18 Tzendal Poqomam Poqomchi’ 28, 29 Tzotzil Tzeltal Tojolab’al? Sipakapa Sakapultek K’ichee’ Kaqchik. Tz’utujil nb: red line = developmental trajectory of Yukatekan and one of its descendants: Yucatec. 14c 14a, 14b 42-45
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M. Zender, ‘Mayan Subgrouping’ , p. 2 of 5 1.2 Innovations on which Subgrouping is Based 01. *t y > t 02. * ŋ > n 03. *r > y 04. *q > k and *q’ > k’ (i.e., uvular stops become velars) 05. * ŋ > (velar nasal becomes fronted velar fricative) 06. *t y > ć (palatalized t becomes voiceless prepalatal affricate) 07. *CV ʔ VC > CV ʔ C 08. *r > t (presumably via intermediate stage of flapped-articulation) 09. *t > č 10. * č > č (alveopalatal affricate > laminal retroflex affricate) Mamean push-chain(s) 11. * č > c 12. *c > č 13. * ć > č (voiceless prepalatal affricates become palato-alveolar) (e.g., *tye: ʔ > * ć e: ʔ > K'iche' * č e: ʔ ‘tree’) 14a. *CVhC > CV:C; 14b. *a: > a and *a > ә (in most environments); 14c. *-b’ > Ø 15. *l > r (recently diffused from S. Lakantun to N. Lakantun) (Ch'orti' change is thorough) 16. *CV ʔ C > CV:C > CVC 17. *k(’) > ch(’) unless inhibited (see K&N 1984: 83-85) 18. *V: > V 19. *h > ʔ (e.g., *ha ʔ > Mam ʔ a ʔ ‘water’) 20. * > x (the fronted velar fricatives become plain velar fricatives) 21. *x > x h (the palato-alveolar fricatives become aspirated) 22. * > h (the fronted velar fricatives become glottal fricatives) 23. *x > h (recheck this—in all environments?) 24. *e: > i: and *o: > u: (raising of long mid-vowels) 25. *w > Ø/#__ (before u,o,i,a), elsewhere *w > b’ 26. *h > w/__o, u (*h became w before round vowels) 27. *n > w/#__ and *n > h/__# (or PM * ŋ > w, h if Wastek did not participate in WM change (#2 above)) 28. *-h > -y 29. *-b’ > - ʔ /VCV_# (i.e., in pollysyllabic forms, final imploded b’ became a glottal stop). 30. *h > Ø/__C (loss of preconsonantal-h, S. Wichmann, pers. comm. 2001)
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course ANTHRO 1160 taught by Professor Marczender during the Fall '09 term at Harvard.

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handout_2_subgrouping - M. Zender, Mayan Subgrouping , p. 1...

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