Yucatec_class 10

Yucatec_class 10 - ANTH 1160 (Fall 2009): Dr. Marc Zender...

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1 ANTH 1160 (Fall 2009): Dr. Marc Zender MW, 11am-12pm Putnam Lab (PM 59-D) deRived nouns (cont'D)
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2 Derived Nouns Nouns can be derived from several di " erent form classes: transitive verbs, intransitive verbs, adjectives and other nouns. There are four major categories of derived nouns: (1) Verbal nouns - mostly CVVC in shape (2) Agentive nouns - always pre $ xed by h- "male" or š - "female", but with varying stem shapes depending on the source: root transitives > CVVC causatives > -ah nouns/adjectives > -Ø (3) Instrumental nouns - always pre $ xed by š - , but with varying su % xes depending on the source: root & derived transitives > -V 1 b’ causatives > - ah nouns/adjectives > -Ø (4) Abstract nouns - derived from adjectives or nouns via -il . Verbal Nouns Bricker (1998:362) discusses the characteristic CVVC-stems of derived verbal nouns in terms of the antipassive, yet there is some reason to question this connection. Some forms undoubtedly focus on agents: ’on "to shoot" ’òon "gun" in- ’òon "my gun (shot by me)" k’òot "wall" i ŋ -k’òot "my wall (built by me)" k’ay "to sing" k’àay "song" i ŋ -k’àay "my song (sung by me)" t’an "to speak" t’àan "word" in-t’àan "my word (spoken by me)" t’o š "to share" t’òo š "share" in-t’òo š "my share (culled by me)" But others, su % xed by -il , refocus attention to recipients/patients: in- ’òon-il "my execution" i ŋ -k’òot-il "my stone wall (made for me)" i ŋ -k’àay-il "my song (sung to me)" in-t’àan-il "my language" in-t’òo š -il "my share (culled by me)" These distinctions suggest that agency is not inherent to the CVVC stem. Rather, it seems that the ‘associative’ -il marks ‘recipience’ on otherwise unmarked nouns. Many Mayan languages derive nouns from verbs through vowel-lengthening, and this would seem to be the best explanation for CVVC here.
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3 Agentive Nouns Agentive nouns signal occupation and origin. They are always pre $ xed by either h- (from earlier * aj- ) or š - (from earlier *ix- ), though their stem-shapes vary depending on their origins (CVVC, - ah or - Ø). tv. roots b’ah "hammer, nail" h b’àah "carpenter" b’on "paint, dye" h b’òon "painter, decorator" ’on "shoot, hunt" h ’òon "hunter" č ’uy "sew" š č ’ùuy "seamstress" causatives ʔ éens "pick (fruit)" h ʔ éens-ah "fruit picker" ʔ oks "insert" š ʔ oks-ah "usherette" kíins "kill" h kíins-ah "murderer, butcher" nouns mèen "deed" h mèen "shaman" míis "broom" h míis "sweeper, janitor" taman "cotton" h taman "sheep" adjectives ʔ u "good" h ʔ u "good person" nùuk "big, old" š nùuk "old woman" Instrumental Nouns Instrumental nouns usually identify tools used to perform an action. They
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course ANTHRO 1160 taught by Professor Marczender during the Fall '09 term at Harvard.

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Yucatec_class 10 - ANTH 1160 (Fall 2009): Dr. Marc Zender...

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