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Yucatec_class 9 - ANTH 1160(Fall 2009 Dr Marc Zender MW...

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1 ANTH 1160 (Fall 2009): Dr. Marc Zender MW, 11am-12pm Putnam Lab (PM 59-D) nouns AND nominAl moRphology
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2 the yucAtec noun Stem ERG 1 - (ADJECTIVE) (SPECIFIER) ROOT/ -INFL. / DER. -ERG 2 -ABS -PLURAL /(NOUN) STEM SUFFIX in(w)- COUNT-CLASS. ʔ àalak’ ʔ e š -en ʔ ob’ a(w)- SIZE/SHAPE ʔ ó ʔ o č -il ʔ ob’ -e č u(y)- COLOR -el k- -al ʔ n a(w)- - V 1 l ʔ e š u(y)- - V 1 b' ʔ ob’ -ah the yucAtec veRb Stem ADVERB/ ERG VERB ROOT DERIVATIONAL STATUS ABS ENCL ASPECT [+INFIXES] SUFFIX(ES) SUFFIX Pluralization - Nouns are typically pluralized by su # xing -( ó ʔ ) ob’ to the root or stem nah house > nahó ʔ ob’ houses b’àak bone > b’àakó ʔ ob’ bones k’uh god > k’uhó ʔ ob’ gods k’u ʔ nest > k’u ʔ ob’ nests - A few nouns form their plurals with -al and the even rarer (partially fossilized) su # x -tak (from earlier *- taak ) pàal infant, child, minor > pàalal boys mèehen son (of father) > mehenó ʔ ob’ sons mehentak sons (archaic) màa š spider monkey, child> màa š ó ʔ ob’ monkeys màa š tak children màa š takó ʔ ob’ children cf. English child~children, brother~brothers~brethren, ox~oxen German Kind~Kinder, Bruder~Brüder~Brüdern, Zeit~Zeiten
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5 Antiquity of the English -en plural At one time, Old English had a productive plural –an, which in turn gave rise to numerous plural forms ending in –en . Some of these older plurals can still be seen in Shakespeare's Early Modern English plays. For instance, he uses eyne for ‘eyes’, kine for ‘cows’ and shooen for ‘shoes’, among others. In Modern English times most of the -en plurals have been lost, but three that remain in common use are oxen , children and brethren . Of these, oxen and brethren are clearly felt to be archaic or restricted vocabulary items, whereas children remains in widespread usage. Chicken has entirely lost its plural sense. pROnominAL inflection of nouns Ergative (Set A) Absolutive (Set B) 1st 2nd 3rd - Set A (Ergative) pre $ xes : possess nouns - Set B (Absolutive) su # xes : indicate stative/equational relationships between persons (marked by the su # x) and nouns/adjectives.
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6 Set A (Ergative) pre $ xes : (1) possess nouns oto č home (note i ŋ - and the presence of the glides w and y ) i ŋ w-oto č my home i ŋ w-oto č ʔ ob’ my homes aw-oto č your home aw-oto č ʔ ob’ your homes uy-oto č his/her home uy-oto č ʔ ob’ his/her homes k- ʔ oto č our home k- ʔ oto č ʔ ob’ our homes aw-oto č ʔ e š y’all’s home aw-oto č ʔ e š ʔ ob’ y’all’s homes uy-oto č ʔ ob’ their home uy-oto č ʔ ob’ their homes pàal child (note im- ) im-pàal my child im-pàal-ó ʔ ob’ my children a-pàal your child a-pàal-ó ʔ ob’ your children u-pàal his/her child u-pàal-ó ʔ ob’ his/her children k-pàal our child k-pàal-ó ʔ ob’ our children a-pàal-é ʔ e š y’all’s child a-pàal-é ʔ e š ʔ ob’ y’all’s children u-pàal-ó ʔ ob’ their child u-pàal-ó ʔ ob’ their children
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