Hofstede Organization Sudies

Hofstede Organization Sudies - Attitudes Vaiues and...

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Attitudes, Vaiues and Organizationai Culture: Disentangling the Concepts Geert Hofetede Geert Hofstede Institute for Research on Intercultural Coopetstiofii Maastricht and Tilburg. the Netheriands Abstract Sentiments collected through paper-and-pencil surveys are often arbitrarily classi- fied according to categories imposed by the researcher, such as attitudes, values, and manifestations of organizational culture. The question is, to what extent are such classifications supported by the distinctions that respondents make in their own minds? In this paper, distinctions between categories of sentiments are sup- ported empirically from the results of an employee survey in a large Danish insur- ance company (n = 2,590). The 120 questions used were classified into attitudes, values, perceptions of organizational practices (for diagnosing organizational cul- tures), and demographics. Perceptions of organizational cultures were measured using an approach developed by the author and his colleagues in an earlier study across 20 Danish and Dutch organizational units. In the insurance company study, employee attitudes were found to be clearly distinct from employee values. Perceptions of organizational practices were unrelated to values, and only oveijl.apped. with attitudes where both dealt with communication. In the latter case, both can be seen as expressions of the organization's communication climate. Other perceptions of organizational practices did not form recognizable clusters al the level of individuals, but only at the level of organizational (sub)units. Descriptors: attitudes, values. oi;ganizational culture, survey methods, organiza- tional communication, insurance companies Organization Studies 1998. 19/3 477-492 e 1998 EGOS 0170-8406/98 001-0019 $3.00 Introduction: Researohers' and Respondents' Minds Survey research tries to collect informatioti about what is on the respon- dents' minds, their sentiments or 'mental programmes'. The social science literature (anthropology, economics, political science, psychology, sociol- ogy) offers many words for describing mental programmes. A cursory inventory yielded the SI terms listed on p. 478 (developed from an earlier collection in Hofstede 1981). No two of these terms are exactly synonymous, and many overlap to some extent. Some of the terms mean different things in different (sub)disciplines (e.g. values) and for different authors (e.g. climate); and even if they are meant to refer to the same thing, definitions vary (e.g. culture). Among the fifty terms, some can be applied to die mental programmes of individuals (e.g. personality); some apply only to collectivities (e.g. climate and culture). All of them are constructs. A construct is 'not directly acces-
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478 Geeit Hofstede aspirations attitudes beliefs cathexes climate culture derivations desires dispositions drives emotions ethic ethos expectancies goals habits ideas ideology instinct intentions interests life style models morale morals mores motivation
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Hofstede Organization Sudies - Attitudes Vaiues and...

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