Lecture_16 - Chapter 4 The Processor Chapter 4 The...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–8. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 The Processor Chapter 4 The Processor 2 Instruction-Level Parallelism (ILP) Pipelining: executing multiple instructions in parallel To increase ILP Deeper pipeline Less work per stage shorter clock cycle Multiple issue Replicate pipeline stages multiple pipelines Start multiple instructions per clock cycle CPI < 1, so use Instructions Per Cycle (IPC) E.g., 4GHz 4-way multiple-issue 16 BIPS, peak CPI = 0.25, peak IPC = 4 But dependencies reduce this in practice 4.10 Parallelism and Advanced Instruction Level Parallelism Chapter 4 The Processor 3 Multiple Issue Static multiple issue Compiler groups instructions to be issued together Packages them into issue slots Compiler detects and avoids hazards Dynamic multiple issue CPU examines instruction stream and chooses instructions to issue each cycle Compiler can help by reordering instructions CPU resolves hazards using advanced techniques at runtime Chapter 4 The Processor 4 Speculation Guess what to do with an instruction Start operation as soon as possible Check whether guess was right If so, complete the operation If not, roll-back and do the right thing Common to static and dynamic multiple issue Examples Speculate on branch outcome Roll back if path taken is different Speculate on load Roll back if location is updated Chapter 4 The Processor 5 Compiler/Hardware Speculation Compiler can reorder instructions e.g., move load before branch Can include fix-up instructions to recover from incorrect guess Hardware can look ahead for instructions to execute Buffer results until it determines they are actually needed Flush buffers on incorrect speculation Chapter 4 The Processor 6 Speculation and Exceptions What if exception occurs on a speculatively executed instruction? e.g., speculative load before null-pointer check Static speculation Can add ISA support for deferring exceptions Dynamic speculation Can buffer exceptions until instruction completion (which may not occur) Chapter 4 The Processor 7 Static Multiple Issue Compiler groups instructions into issue packets Group of instructions that can be issued on a single cycle Determined by pipeline resources required Think of an issue packet as a very long instruction Specifies multiple concurrent operations Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) Chapter 4 The Processor 8...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course CS 2506 taught by Professor Srinidhivaradarajan during the Spring '12 term at Virginia Tech.

Page1 / 27

Lecture_16 - Chapter 4 The Processor Chapter 4 The...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 8. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online